PEDIATRICS recent issues

Bifidobacterium Abundance in Early Infancy and Vaccine Response at 2 Years of Age

BACKGROUND:

The intestinal microbiome in early infancy affects immunologic development and thus may affect vaccine memory, though few prospective studies have examined such associations. We examined the association of Bifidobacterium levels in early infancy with memory responses to early vaccination measured at 2 years of age.

METHODS:

In this prospective observational study, we examined the association of Bifidobacterium abundance in the stool of healthy infants at 6 to 15 weeks of age, near the time of vaccination, with T-cell and antibody responses measured at 6 weeks, 15 weeks, and 2 years of age. Infants were vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) (at birth), oral polio virus (at birth and at 6, 10, and 14 weeks), tetanus toxoid (TT) (at 6, 10, and 14 weeks), and hepatitis B virus (at 6, 10, and 14 weeks). Fecal Bifidobacterium was measured at 6, 11, and 15 weeks. Bifidobacterium species and subspecies were measured at 6 weeks.

RESULTS:

Mean Bifidobacterium abundance in early infancy was positively associated with the CD4 T-cell responses to BCG, TT, and hepatitis B virus at 15 weeks, with CD4 responses to BCG and TT at 2 years, and with plasma TT-specific immunoglobulin G and stool polio-specific immunoglobulin A at 2 years. Similar associations were seen for the predominant subspecies, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Bifidobacterium abundance in early infancy may increase protective efficacy of vaccines by enhancing immunologic memory. This hypothesis could be tested in clinical trials of interventions to optimize Bifidobacterium abundance in appropriate populations.

Mutation in ITCH Gene Can Cause Syndromic Multisystem Autoimmune Disease With Acute Liver Failure

Pediatric intractable autoimmune hepatitis is rare and may be responsible for acute liver failure. Mutations in the itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (ITCH) gene (located on chromosome 20q11.22) can lead to a deficiency of the encoded protein, resulting in increased T-cell activity with lack of immune tolerance and manifestation of a complex systemic autoimmune disease. A 1-year-old girl of consanguineous parents received a liver transplant (LT) because of acute liver failure attributed to a drug-induced hypereosinophilic syndrome with positive liver-kidney-mikrosome-2 antibodies. Notable findings were syndromic features, dystrophy, short stature, psychomotor retardation, and muscular hypotonia. Later, we saw corticosteroid-sensitive rejections as well as a systemic autoimmune disease with detection of specific antibodies (de novo autoimmune hepatitis, thyroiditis with exophthalmos, diabetes mellitus type 1, and immune neutropenia). Histologically, liver cirrhosis with lobular inflammatory infiltrates, giant-cell hepatitis, and ductopenia was verified in chronic cholestasis. Shortly after a second LT, a comparable liver histology could be detected, and viral, bacterial, and mycotic infections deteriorated the general health condition. Because of refractory pancytopenia related to portal hypertension and hypersplenism, a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder was excluded. One year after the second LT, epidural and subdural bleeding occurred. Three months afterward, the girl died of sepsis. Postmortem, whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous mutation in the ITCH gene. A biallelic mutation in ITCH can cause a severe syndromic multisystem autoimmune disease with the above phenotypic characteristics and acute liver failure because of autoimmune hepatitis. This case reveals the importance of ubiquitin pathways for regulation of the immune system.

Methemoglobinemia in an Infant After Sclerotherapy With High-Dose Doxycycline

Methemoglobinemia occurs when the heme moiety of hemoglobin (Hb) is oxidized from the ferrous to ferric state, leading to impairments in oxygen transport and delivery. Methemoglobinemia is rare in pediatric patients but has been described in the setting of congenital abnormalities in the Hb structure, inherited enzyme deficiencies, oxidative Hb injury in response to illness, and oxidative Hb injury due to toxicants. We present a 1-week-old infant born with a cervical lymphangioma who developed persistent desaturations that were unresponsive to oxygen after sclerotherapy with doxycycline. Arterial blood gas revealed a high Pao2 despite low saturations being found on pulse oximetry and a methemoglobin level that was found to be elevated. Further sclerotherapy was discontinued, the saturations eventually normalized, and the methemoglobin level decreased. This is a novel report of sclerotherapy with doxycycline associated with the development of methemoglobinemia.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Parental Management of Childhood Asthma: An RCT

BACKGROUND:

Few trials have been conducted to address the psychological difficulties of parents in managing their child’s asthma. Fostering parental psychological flexibility through Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may help parents to accept these psychological difficulties and improve their management of childhood asthma.

METHODS:

In this randomized controlled trial, a 4-session, group-based ACT plus asthma education (ACT group) was compared with an asthma education talk plus 3 telephone follow-ups (control group) to train parents of children diagnosed with asthma. The use of health care services due to asthma exacerbations in children and the psychological well-being of their parents were assessed before, immediately after, and at 6 months after the intervention.

RESULTS:

A total of 168 parents and their children aged 3 to 12 years with asthma were consecutively recruited in a public hospital in Hong Kong. When compared with the control group, children whose parents were in the ACT group made significantly fewer emergency department visits (adjusted 6-month incidence rate ratio = 0.20; confidence interval [CI] 0.08 to 0.53; P = .001) due to asthma exacerbations at 6 months postintervention. These parents also reported a decrease in psychological inflexibility (mean difference = –5.45; CI –7.71 to –3.30; P = .014), less anxiety (mean difference = –2.20; CI –3.66 to –0.73; P = .003), and stress (mean difference = –2.50; CI –4.54 to –0.47; P = .016).

CONCLUSIONS:

Integrating ACT into parental asthma education was effective at decreasing parental anxiety and stress and reducing the asthma-related emergency department visits of children at 6 months postintervention.

Parent-Adolescent Agreement About Adolescents Suicidal Thoughts

OBJECTIVES:

To examine agreement between parent and adolescent reports of adolescents’ suicidal thoughts and explore demographic and clinical factors associated with agreement in a large community sample.

METHODS:

Participants included 5137 adolescents 11 to 17 years old (52.1% girls; 43.0% racial minority) and a collateral informant (97.2% parent or stepparent) from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. Families were recruited from a large pediatric health care network. Adolescents and parents completed a clinical interview that included questions about adolescents’ lifetime suicidal thoughts.

RESULTS:

Agreement was moderate for thoughts of killing self ( = 0.466) and low for thoughts of death or dying ( = 0.171). Discrepancies stemmed from both parental unawareness of suicidal thoughts reported by adolescents and adolescent denial of suicidal thoughts reported by parents. Fifty percent of parents were unaware of adolescents’ thoughts of killing themselves, and 75.6% of parents were unaware of adolescents’ recurrent thoughts of death. Forty-eight percent of adolescents denied thoughts of killing themselves, and 67.5% of adolescents denied thoughts of death reported by parents. Several demographic (eg, age) and clinical (eg, treatment history) characteristics were associated with agreement.

CONCLUSIONS:

Early identification and intervention hinge on reliable and valid assessment of suicide risk. The high prevalence of parental unawareness and adolescent denial of suicidal thoughts found in this study suggests that many adolescents at risk for suicide may go undetected. These findings have important clinical implications for pediatric settings, including the need for a multi-informant approach to suicide screening and a personalized approach to assessment based on empirically derived risk factors for unawareness and denial.

Factors Associated With Rotavirus Vaccine Coverage

BACKGROUND:

Rotavirus vaccines (RVVs) were included in the US immunization program in 2006 and are coadministered with the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, yet their coverage lags behind DTaP. We assessed timing, initiation, and completion of the RVV series among children enrolled in active gastroenteritis surveillance at 7 US medical institutions during 2014–2016.

METHODS:

We compared coverage and timing of each vaccine series and analyzed characteristics associated with RVV initiation and completion. We report odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from multivariable logistic regression models.

RESULTS:

We enrolled 10 603 children. In 2015, ≥1 dose coverage was 91% for RVV and 97% for DTaP. Seven percent of children received their first DTaP vaccine at age ≥15 weeks versus 4% for RVV (P ≤ .001). Recent birth years (2013–2016) were associated with higher odds of RVV initiation (OR = 5.72; 95% CI 4.43–7.39), whereas preterm birth (OR = 0.32; 95% CI 0.24–0.41), older age at DTaP initiation (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.80–0.91), income between $50 000 and $100 000 (OR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.40–0.78), and higher maternal education (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.36–0.74) were associated with lower odds. Once RVV was initiated, recent birth years (2013–2016; OR = 1.57 [95% CI 1.32–1.88]) and higher maternal education (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.07–1.60) were associated with higher odds of RVV completion, whereas preterm birth (OR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.62–0.94), African American race (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.70–0.97) and public or no insurance (OR = 0.75; 95% CI 0.60–0.93) were associated with lower odds. Regional differences existed.

CONCLUSIONS:

RVV coverage remains lower than that for the DTaP vaccine. Timely DTaP administration may help improve RVV coverage.

Questions and Concerns About HPV Vaccine: A Communication Experiment

OBJECTIVES:

We sought to identify effective responses to parents’ questions and concerns about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

METHODS:

In 2017–2018, we surveyed a national sample of 1196 US parents of children aged 9 to 17 years. We recorded brief videos of a pediatrician providing messages that addressed 7 HPV vaccination topics that commonly elicit questions or concerns (eg, recommended age). We randomly assigned parents to 1 of the message topics; parents then viewed 4 videos on that topic in random order and evaluated the messages.

RESULTS:

Parents were more confident in HPV vaccine when they were exposed to messages that addressed lack of knowledge about HPV vaccine (b = 0.13; P = .01), messages that included information about cancer prevention (b = 0.11; P < .001), messages that required a higher reading level (b = 0.02; P = .01), and messages that were longer (b = 0.03; P < .001). Parents were less confident in HPV vaccine when exposed to messages in which urgency was expressed (b = –0.06; P = .005). Analyses conducted by using HPV vaccine motivation as an outcome revealed the same pattern of findings.

CONCLUSIONS:

We provide research-tested messages that providers can use to address parents’ HPV vaccination questions and concerns about 7 common topics. Important principles for increasing message effectiveness are to include information on the benefits of vaccination (including cancer prevention) and avoid expressing urgency to vaccinate when addressing parents' questions or concerns. Additionally, providers may need to be prepared to have longer conversations with parents who express concerns about HPV vaccine, especially regarding safety and side effects.

Leveraging Evidence-Based Public Policy and Advocacy to Advance Newborn Screening in California

In 2016, the EveryLife Foundation for Rare Diseases, in partnership with Dr Pan, who is a pediatrician and state senator in California, launched legislation to advance and expand newborn screening. Researchers have shown that newborn screening can be cost-effective and can greatly improve health outcomes for patients with rare diseases. However, adding additional diseases in newborn screening is a long process, requiring legislative approval in addition to new state funding. Such process delays can lead to protracted diagnostic odysseys for patients, especially those with rare diseases. These delays can result in irreversible morbidity and, in some cases, early mortality for patients. To improve this process, legislation known as Senate Bill 1095 was introduced to require California to adhere to the latest federal recommendations for newborn screening within 2 years. We provide insight and describe the process of advancing state legislation, coalition building, and managing opposition. Senate Bill 1095 would become law in 2016, requiring California to screen for 2 new rare diseases by August 2018: mucopolysaccharidosis type I and Pompe disease. This case study can serve as a model for advocates looking to expand state newborn-screening programs.

Addressing Racial Inequities in Breastfeeding in the Southern United States

BACKGROUND:

Race is a predictor of breastfeeding rates in the United States, and rates are lowest among African American infants. Few studies have assessed changes in breastfeeding rates by race after implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding (hereafter referred to as the Ten Steps), and none have assessed the association between implementation and changes in racial disparities in breastfeeding rates. Our goal was to determine if a hospital- and community-based initiative in the Southern United States could increase compliance with the Ten Steps, lead to Baby-Friendly designation, and decrease racial disparities in breastfeeding.

METHODS:

Hospitals in Mississippi, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Texas were enrolled into the Communities and Hospitals Advancing Maternity Practices initiative from 2014 to 2017 and received an intensive quality improvement and technical assistance intervention to improve compliance with the Ten Steps. Community partners and statewide organizations provided parallel support. Hospitals submitted monthly aggregate data stratified by race on breastfeeding, skin-to-skin care, and rooming in practices.

RESULTS:

The disparity in breastfeeding initiation between African American and white infants decreased by 9.6 percentage points (95% confidence interval 1.6–19.5) over the course of 31 months. Breastfeeding initiation increased from 66% to 75% for all races combined, and exclusivity increased from 34% to 39%. Initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among African American infants increased from 46% to 63% (P < .05) and from 19% to 31% (P < .05), respectively. Skin-to-skin care after cesarean delivery was significantly associated with increased breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in all races; rooming in was significantly associated with increased exclusive breastfeeding in African American infants only.

CONCLUSIONS:

Increased compliance with the Ten Steps was associated with a decrease in racial disparities in breastfeeding.

Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Effectiveness and Herd Protection in Young Women

BACKGROUND:

Clinical trials of the 4-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine demonstrate high efficacy, but surveillance studies are essential to examine the long-term impact of vaccine introduction on HPV prevalence in community settings. The aims of this study were to determine during the 11 years after vaccine introduction the prevalence of (1) vaccine-type HPV in adolescent and young adult women who were vaccinated (to assess vaccine effectiveness) and (2) vaccine-type HPV in women who were unvaccinated (to assess herd protection).

METHODS:

Young women 13 to 26 years of age were recruited from hospital-based and community health clinics for 4 surveillance studies from 2006 to 2017. We determined the proportion of vaccinated and unvaccinated women who were positive for vaccine-type HPV across the studies, and the odds of positivity for vaccine-type HPV using logistic regression; all analyses were propensity score–adjusted to control for between-wave differences in participant characteristics.

RESULTS:

Vaccination rates increased from 0% to 84.3% (97% of study participants received the 4-valent vaccine). Among women who were vaccinated, 4-valent vaccine–type HPV detection decreased from 35% to 6.7% (80.9% decline; odds ratio 0.13, 95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.22). Among women who were unvaccinated, 4-valent vaccine–type HPV detection decreased from 32.4% to 19.4% (40% decline; odds ratio 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.26 to 0.97). Estimated vaccine effectiveness was 90.6% in wave 3 and 80.1% in wave 4.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this study in which trends in HPV in a US community >10 years after 4-valent HPV vaccine introduction and after 9-valent vaccine introduction were examined, we found evidence of vaccine effectiveness and herd protection. Further research is needed to examine trends in 9-valent vaccine–type HPV after higher rates of vaccination are achieved.

Trends in Pediatric Hospitalizations and Readmissions: 2010-2016

BACKGROUND:

Health reform and policy initiatives over the last 2 decades have led to significant changes in pediatric clinical practice. However, little is known about recent trends in pediatric hospitalizations and readmissions at a national level.

METHODS:

Data from the 2010–2016 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Readmissions Database and National Inpatient Sample were analyzed to characterize patient-level and hospital-level trends in annual pediatric (ages 1–17 years) admissions and 30-day readmissions. Poisson regression was used to evaluate trends in pediatric readmissions over time.

RESULTS:

From 2010 to 2016, the total number of index admissions decreased by 21.3%, but the percentage of admissions for children with complex chronic conditions increased by 5.7%. Unadjusted pediatric 30-day readmission rates increased over time from 6.26% in 2010 to 7.02% in 2016 with a corresponding increase in numbers of admissions for patients with complex chronic conditions. When stratified by complex or chronic conditions, readmission rates declined or remained stable across patient subgroups. Mean risk-adjusted hospital readmission rates increased over time overall (6.46% in 2010 to 7.14% in 2016) and in most hospital subgroups but decreased over time in metropolitan teaching hospitals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Pediatric admissions declined from 2010 to 2016 as 30-day readmission rates increased. The increase in readmission rates was associated with greater numbers of admissions for children with chronic conditions. Hospitals serving pediatric patients need to account for the rising complexity of pediatric admissions and develop strategies for reducing readmissions in this high-risk population.

Live Attenuated and Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness

BACKGROUND:

Researchers in observational studies of vaccine effectiveness (VE) in which they compared quadrivalent live attenuated vaccine (LAIV4) and inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) among children and adolescents have shown inconsistent results, and the studies have been limited by small samples.

METHODS:

We combined data from 5 US studies from 2013–2014 through 2015–2016 to compare the VE of LAIV4 and IIV against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza among patients aged 2 to 17 years by influenza season, subtype, age group, and prior vaccination status. The VE of IIV or LAIV4 was calculated as 100% x (1 – odds ratio), comparing the odds of vaccination among patients who were influenza-positive to patients who were influenza-negative from adjusted logistic regression models. Relative effectiveness was defined as the odds of influenza comparingLAIV4 and IIV recipients.

RESULTS:

Of 17 173 patients aged 2 to 17 years, 4579 received IIV, 1979 received LAIV4, and 10 615 were unvaccinated. Against influenza A/H1N1pdm09, VE was 67% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62% to 72%) for IIV and 20% (95% CI: –6% to 39%) for LAIV4. Results were similar when stratified by vaccination in the previous season. LAIV4 recipients had significantly higher odds of influenza A/H1N1pdm09 compared with IIV recipients (odds ratio 2.66; 95% CI: 2.06 to 3.44). LAIV4 and IIV had similar effectiveness against influenza A/H3N2 and B. Our overall findings were consistent when stratified by influenza season and age group.

CONCLUSIONS:

From this pooled individual patient–level data analysis, we found reduced effectiveness of LAIV4 against influenza A/H1N1pdm09 compared with IIV, which is consistent with published results from the individual studies included.

Caregiver Experience in Pediatric Dialysis

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Pediatric dialysis is thought to be burdensome on caregivers given their need to assume dual responsibilities of parental and medical management of their child’s chronic illness. In this study, we seek to describe the experience of parental caregivers of children receiving chronic dialysis for end-stage kidney disease.

METHODS:

We performed semistructured interviews of primary caregivers of children with end-stage kidney disease receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis for at least 8 weeks from March 2016 to April 2017 at 3 pediatric dialysis centers in the United States. We performed a thematic analysis to inductively derive and identify themes and subthemes related to positive and negative caregiver experiences.

RESULTS:

Thirty-five caregivers completed interviews. Four major themes were identified, each with several subthemes: (1) caregiver medicalization (subthemes: diagnosis and initiation, disease management, and the future), (2) emotional adjustment (initial and/or acute phase, acceptance, personal growth, and medical stress and psychological burden), (3) pragmatic adaptation (disruption, adaptation of life goals and/or sense of self, and financial impact), and (4) social adjustment (relationship opportunity, relationship risk, advocacy, family functioning, and intimate relationships). These themes and subthemes reflected a broad range of experiences from positive to severely burdensome.

CONCLUSIONS:

Caregivers of patients on dialysis report a broad range of positive and burdensome experiences. These results reveal a need for continued advocacy to support families with a child on dialysis and can be used to develop targeted measures to study and improve caregiver experience in this population.

Newborn Risk Factors for Subsequent Physical Abuse Hospitalizations

OBJECTIVES:

To describe the prevalence of risk factors for abuse and newborns’ risks for physical abuse hospitalizations during early infancy.

METHODS:

We created a nationally representative US birth cohort using the 2013 and 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Databases. Newborns were characterized by demographics, prematurity or low birth weight (LBW), intrauterine drug exposure, and medical complexity (including birth defects). Newborns were tracked for 6 months from their birth hospitalization, and subsequent abuse hospitalizations were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. We calculated adjusted relative risks (aRRs) with multiple logistic regression, and we used classification and regression trees to identify newborns with the greatest risk for abuse on the basis of combinations of multiple risk factors.

RESULTS:

There were 3 740 582 newborns in the cohort. Among them, 1247 (0.03%) were subsequently hospitalized for abuse within 6 months. Among infants who were abused, 20.4% were premature or LBW, and 4.1% were drug exposed. Premature or LBW newborns (aRR 2.16 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.87–2.49]) and newborns who were drug exposed (aRR 2.86 [95% CI: 2.15–3.80]) were independently at an increased risk for an abuse hospitalization, but newborns with medical complexity or noncardiac birth defects were not. Publicly insured preterm or LBW newborns from rural counties had the greatest risk for abuse hospitalizations (aRR 9.54 [95% CI: 6.88–13.23]). Publicly insured newborns who were also preterm, LBW, or drug exposed constituted 5.2% of all newborns, yet they constituted 18.5% of all infants who were abused.

CONCLUSIONS:

Preterm or LBW newborns and newborns who were drug exposed, particularly those with public insurance and residing in rural counties, were at the highest risk for abuse hospitalizations. Effective prevention directed at these highest-risk newborns may prevent a disproportionate amount of abuse.

Continuous Versus Intermittent Vancomycin Infusions in Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

BACKGROUND:

In adults, continuous infusions of vancomycin (CIV) are associated with earlier attainment of target drug concentrations, require fewer blood samples for monitoring, and may reduce drug toxicity. We aimed to determine, in young infants, if CIV or intermittent infusions of vancomycin (IIV) better achieves target vancomycin concentrations at the first steady-state level and to compare the frequency of drug-related adverse effects.

METHODS:

In a multicenter randomized controlled trial in 2 tertiary neonatal units over a 40-month period, young infants aged 0 to 90 days requiring vancomycin therapy for at least 48 hours were randomly assigned to CIV and IIV.

RESULTS:

Of 111 infants randomized, 104 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. The proportion of infants achieving target concentrations at the first steady-state level was higher for CIV compared with IIV (45 in 53 [85%] vs 21 in 51 [41%]; P < .001). Fewer dose adjustments were required in the CIV group (median 0; range 0–1) compared with the IIV group (median 1; range 0–3; P < .001). The mean daily dose required to achieve target concentrations was lower with CIV compared with IIV (40.6 [SD 10.7] vs 60.6 [SD 53.0] mg/kg per day, respectively; P = .01). No drug-related adverse effects occurred in either group.

CONCLUSIONS:

In young infants, CIV is associated with earlier and improved attainment of target concentrations compared with IIV. Lower total daily doses are required to achieve target levels with CIV. There is no difference in the rate of drug-related adverse effects.

Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and T-cell Lymphopenia in California, 2010-2017

OBJECTIVES:

Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was instituted in California in 2010. In the ensuing 6.5 years, 3 252 156 infants in the state had DNA from dried blood spots assayed for T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Abnormal TREC results were followed-up with liquid blood testing for T-cell abnormalities. We report the performance of the SCID screening program and the outcomes of infants who were identified.

METHODS:

Data that were reviewed and analyzed included demographics, nursery summaries, TREC and lymphocyte flow-cytometry values, and available follow-up, including clinical and genetic diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes.

RESULTS:

Infants with clinically significant T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) were successfully identified at a rate of 1 in 15 300 births. Of these, 50 cases of SCID, or 1 in 65 000 births (95% confidence interval 1 in 51 000–1 in 90 000) were found. Prompt treatment led to 94% survival. Infants with non-SCID TCL were also identified, diagnosed and managed, including 4 with complete DiGeorge syndrome who received thymus transplants. Although no cases of typical SCID are known to have been missed, 2 infants with delayed-onset leaky SCID had normal neonatal TREC screens but came to clinical attention at 7 and 23 months of age.

CONCLUSIONS:

Population-based TREC testing, although unable to detect immune defects in which T cells are present at birth, is effective for identifying SCID and clinically important TCL with high sensitivity and specificity. The experience in California supports the rapid, widespread adoption of SCID newborn screening.

Cognitive Outcomes and Positional Plagiocephaly

BACKGROUND:

Studies have revealed an association between positional plagiocephaly and/or brachycephaly (PPB) and development, although little is known about long-term outcomes. We examined cognition and academic achievement in children with and without PPB, testing the hypothesis that children who had PPB as infants would score lower than controls.

METHODS:

We enrolled 187 school-aged children with a history of PPB and 149 controls. Exposures were the presence or absence and severity of infancy PPB (mild, moderate to severe). Cognitive and academic outcomes were assessed by using the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Third Edition, respectively.

RESULTS:

Children with PPB scored lower than controls on most scales of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition (standardized effect sizes [ESs] = –0.38 to –0.20) and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Third Edition (ESs = –0.22 to –0.17). Analyses by PPB severity revealed meaningful differences among children with moderate to severe PPB (ESs = –0.47 to –0.23 for 8 of 9 outcomes), but few differences in children with mild PPB (ESs = –0.28 to 0.14).

CONCLUSIONS:

School-aged children with moderate to severe PPB scored lower than controls on cognitive and academic measures; associations were negligible among children with mild PPB. The findings do not necessarily imply that these associations are causal; rather, PPB may serve as a marker of developmental risk. Our findings suggest a role for assessing PPB severity in clinical practice: providing developmental assessment and intervention for infants with more severe deformation and reassurance and anticipatory guidance for patients with mild deformation.

Patterns of Prenatal Alcohol Use That Predict Infant Growth and Development

BACKGROUND:

Previous studies have had inconsistent findings regarding the quantity and frequency of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) that lead to deficits in growth and neurodevelopment. This may be due to imprecise methods of exposure classification. Our objective in this study was to employ longitudinal trajectory modeling of maternal drinking patterns associated with infant growth or neurodevelopmental deficits to a homogenous sample of mothers and infants.

METHODS:

From a sample of 471 pregnant women prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study in the Ukraine, we performed a longitudinal cluster analysis of drinking patterns across gestation. We employed multivariable regression analyses to determine if each trajectory group was associated with infant weight, length, or head circumference at birth or psychomotor or mental deficits in infancy.

RESULTS:

We identified 5 distinct PAE trajectory groups: minimal or no PAE throughout gestation, low-to-moderate PAE with discontinuation early in gestation, low-to-moderate PAE sustained across gestation, moderate-to-high PAE with reduction early in gestation, and high PAE sustained across gestation. The highest-trajectory group was associated with deficits in infant weight and length at birth and deficits in psychomotor and mental performance at 6 to 12 months of age. Although confidence intervals overlapped, low-to-moderate sustained use was more strongly associated with most negative infant outcomes than moderate-to-high PAE with early reduction.

CONCLUSIONS:

With these findings, we confirm that high, sustained PAE confers the highest risk for adverse infant outcomes but demonstrate that even low-to-moderate PAE continued across gestation is associated with certain deficits. This approach may be used to help clinicians identify high-risk infants for targeted early intervention.

Ranitidine-Induced Delirium in a 7-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report

Ranitidine is a histamine-2 blocker commonly prescribed in PICUs for the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal bleeding and stress ulcers. However, it can be associated to central nervous system side effects, such as delirium, in adults. We present the first case of a child presenting delirium possibly caused by anticholinergic toxidrome secondary to the use of ranitidine, resolving after drug discontinuation. With this case report, we reinforce that a wide variety of clinical conditions can trigger delirium and that the best therapeutic approach is to minimize risk factors.

Effects of Feedback on Chest Compression Quality: A Randomized Simulation Study

OBJECTIVES:

Our aim for this study was to test whether visual and verbal feedback compared with instructor-led feedback improve the quality of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

METHODS:

There were 653 third-year medical students randomly assigned to practice pediatric CPR on 1 of 2 manikins (infant and adolescent; n = 344 and n = 309, respectively). They were further randomly assigned to 1 of 3 feedback groups: The instructor feedback (IF) group (n = 225) received traditional, instructor-led feedback without any additional feedback device. The device feedback (DF) group (n = 223) received real-time visual feedback from a feedback device. The instructor and device feedback (IDF) group (n = 205) received verbal feedback from an instructor who continuously reviewed the trainees’ performance using the feedback device. After the training, participants’ CPR performance was assessed on the same manikin while no feedback was being provided.

RESULTS:

For the primary outcome of total compression score, participants in the DF and IDF groups performed similarly, with both groups showing scores significantly (P < .001) better than those of the IF group. The same findings held for correct hand position and the proportion of complete release. For compression rate, the DF group was at the higher end of the guideline for 100 to 120 chest compressions per minute compared with the IF and IDF groups (both P < .001). No effect of feedback on compression depth was found.

CONCLUSIONS:

Chest compression performance significantly improved with both visual and verbal feedback compared with instructor-led feedback. Feedback devices should be implemented during pediatric resuscitation training to improve resuscitation performance.

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