PEDIATRICS recent issues

Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Infantile Hemangiomas

Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) occur in as many as 5% of infants, making them the most common benign tumor of infancy. Most IHs are small, innocuous, self-resolving, and require no treatment. However, because of their size or location, a significant minority of IHs are potentially problematic. These include IHs that may cause permanent scarring and disfigurement (eg, facial IHs), hepatic or airway IHs, and IHs with the potential for functional impairment (eg, periorbital IHs), ulceration (that may cause pain or scarring), and associated underlying abnormalities (eg, intracranial and aortic arch vascular abnormalities accompanying a large facial IH). This clinical practice guideline for the management of IHs emphasizes several key concepts. It defines those IHs that are potentially higher risk and should prompt concern, and emphasizes increased vigilance, consideration of active treatment and, when appropriate, specialty consultation. It discusses the specific growth characteristics of IHs, that is, that the most rapid and significant growth occurs between 1 and 3 months of age and that growth is completed by 5 months of age in most cases. Because many IHs leave behind permanent skin changes, there is a window of opportunity to treat higher-risk IHs and optimize outcomes. Early intervention and/or referral (ideally by 1 month of age) is recommended for infants who have potentially problematic IHs. When systemic treatment is indicated, propranolol is the drug of choice at a dose of 2 to 3 mg/kg per day. Treatment typically is continued for at least 6 months and often is maintained until 12 months of age (occasionally longer). Topical timolol may be used to treat select small, thin, superficial IHs. Surgery and/or laser treatment are most useful for the treatment of residual skin changes after involution and, less commonly, may be considered earlier to treat some IHs.

Estimated Nonreimbursed Costs for Care Coordination for Children With Medical Complexity

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Multidisciplinary care teams may improve health and control total cost for children with medical complexity (CMC). We aim to quantify the time required to perform nonreimbursed care coordination activities by a multidisciplinary care coordination program for CMC and to estimate the direct salary costs of that time.

METHODS:

From April 2013 to October 2015, program staff tracked time spent in practicably measured nonbilled care coordination efforts. Staff documented the discipline involved, the method used, and the target of the activity. Cost was estimated by multiplying the time spent by the typical salary of the type of personnel performing the activity.

RESULTS:

Staff logged 53 148 unique nonbilled care coordination activities for 208 CMC. Dietitians accounted for 26% of total time, physicians and nurse practitioners 24%, registered nurses 29%, and social workers 21% (1.8, 2.3, 1.2, and 1.4 hours per CMC per month per full-time provider, respectively). Median time spent in nonreimbursed care coordination was 2.3 hours per child per month (interquartile range 0.8–6.8). Enrollees required substantially greater time in their first program month than thereafter (median 6.7 vs 2.1 hours per CMC per month). Based on 2015 national salary data, the adjusted median estimated cost of documented activities ranged from $145 to $210 per CMC per month.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this multidisciplinary model, care coordination for CMC required substantial staff time, even without accounting for all activities, particularly in the first month of program enrollment. Continued advocacy is warranted for the reimbursement of care coordination activities for CMC.

A 17-Year-Old Boy With High-Functioning Autism, Gastrointestinal Illness, and Seizures

A healthy 17-year-old boy with a high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder presented to the emergency department after having a 4-minute episode of seizure-like activity in the setting of presumed viral gastroenteritis. Within an hour of emergency department arrival, he developed a forehead-sparing facial droop, right-sided ptosis, and expressive aphasia, prompting stroke team assessment and urgent neuroimaging. Laboratory results later revealed a serum sodium of 119 mmol/L. Neurologic deficits self-resolved, and a full physical examination revealed diffuse abdominal tenderness in the lower abdomen with rebound tenderness in the right-lower quadrant. The patient was admitted to the PICU for electrolyte management and monitoring. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen obtained the following morning revealed the patient’s final diagnosis.

Use of Social Psychology to Improve Adherence to National Bronchiolitis Guidelines

OBJECTIVES:

The American Academy of Pediatrics’ bronchiolitis guidelines recommend against albuterol and corticosteroids for treating and chest radiographs (CRs) for diagnosing infants with bronchiolitis. However, high rates of nonadherence have been documented. Our objective was to improve guideline adherence in infants with bronchiolitis.

METHODS:

This quality improvement study was conducted in 1 urban academic pediatric primary care clinic caring for predominately minority and publicly insured children. We tested provider guideline education, display of guidelines in patient care areas, and monthly e-mails to all providers documenting deviation rates, with individual e-mails to providers who deviated. P-charts and interrupted time series analysis were used to estimate the effect of the intervention.

RESULTS:

There were 380 children <2 years of age with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis in the 16 nonsummer months preintervention and 417 in the 15 postintervention months. Rates of prescribed and administered albuterol declined from 45.7% in the baseline period to 13.7% in the intervention period and CR use dropped from a mean of 10.1% to 3.4%, both demonstrating special cause variation. Steroid use did not change significantly. In interrupted time series analyses, the intervention was associated with a significant decrease in albuterol use (P < .001) but not in CR or steroid use. Emergency department visits declined slightly but admissions for bronchiolitis were stable.

CONCLUSIONS:

Traditional quality improvement efforts coupled with social psychology techniques resulted in improved guideline adherence in outpatient bronchiolitis management. Additional study will help identify which techniques are most effective for increasing guideline adherence in cases of low-value care.

Positive Predictive Value of Administrative Data for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

OBJECTIVES:

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a postnatal withdrawal syndrome experienced by some infants with opioid exposure. Hospital administrative data are commonly used for research and surveillance but have not been validated for NAS. Our objectives for this study were to validate the diagnostic codes for NAS and to develop an algorithm to optimize identification.

METHODS:

Tennessee Medicaid claims from 2009 to 2011 (primary sample) and 2016 (secondary sample; post–International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-10-CM]) were obtained. Cases of NAS were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code (2009–2011) 779.5 and ICD-10-CM code (2016) P96.1. Medical record review cases were then conducted by 2 physicians using a standardized algorithm, and positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated. Algorithms were developed for optimizing the identification of NAS in administrative data.

RESULTS:

In our primary sample of 112 029 mother-infant dyads, 950 potential NAS cases were identified from Medicaid claims data and reviewed. Among reviewed records, 863 were confirmed as having NAS (including 628 [66.1%] cases identified as NAS requiring pharmacotherapy, 224 [23.5%] as NAS not requiring pharmacotherapy, and 11 [1.2%] as iatrogenic NAS), and 87 (9.2%) did not meet clinical criteria for NAS. The PPV of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code for NAS in clinically confirmed NAS was 91% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%–92.5%). Similarly, the PPV for the ICD-10-CM code in the secondary sample was 98.2% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%–99.2%). Algorithms using elements from the Medicaid claims and from length of stay improved PPV.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a large population-based cohort of Medicaid participants, hospital administrative data had a high PPV in identifying cases of clinically diagnosed NAS.

Use of a Clinical Care Algorithm to Improve Care for Children With Hematogenous Osteomyelitis

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) causes significant morbidity in children. Quality improvement (QI) methods have been used to successfully improve care and decrease costs through standardization for numerous conditions, including pediatric AHO. We embarked on a QI initiative to standardize our approach to the inpatient management of AHO, with a global aim of reducing inpatient costs.

METHODS:

We used existing literature and local consensus to develop a care algorithm for the inpatient management of AHO. We used the Model for Improvement as the framework for the project, which included process mapping, failure mode analysis, and key driver identification. We engaged with institutional providers to achieve at least 80% consensus regarding specific key drivers and tested various interventions to support uptake of the care algorithm.

RESULTS:

Fifty-seven patients were included. There were 31 patients in the preintervention cohort and 26 in the postintervention cohort, of whom 19 were managed per the algorithm. Mean inpatient charges decreased from $45 718 in the preintervention cohort to $32 895 in the postintervention cohort; length of stay did not change. Adherence to recommended empirical antimicrobial agents trended upward.

CONCLUSIONS:

A simple and low-cost QI project was used to safely decrease the cost of inpatient care for pediatric AHO at a tertiary care children’s hospital. A robust local consensus process proved to be a key component in the uptake of standardization.

Neonatal Head Circumference in Newborns With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

OBJECTIVES:

To compare head circumference (HC) in neonates treated for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) with control neonates without antenatal opioid exposure.

METHODS:

Our prospective cohort study ran from April 1, 2014, through December 31, 2016. Newborns treated for NAS delivered from well-dated pregnancies ≥34 weeks’ gestation were compared with newborns who were nonopioid exposed and matched for race, parity, mode of delivery, and gestational age. All mothers underwent serial antenatal urine drug testing. A minimum of 754 study participants were needed (377 in each group) to demonstrate an increase in the proportion of newborns with HCs less than or equal to the 10th percentile from 10% in controls to a minimum of 20% in NAS newborns with 90% power.

RESULTS:

A total of 858 neonates were enrolled (429 NAS cases and 429 controls). Mean HC for cases was 33.04 cm (±1.9 cm) compared with 33.99 cm (±2.0 cm) for controls (P < .0001). Among the 429 NAS cases, the mothers of 372 (87%) were on opioid medication-assisted treatment. For NAS cases, 30.1% (95% confidence interval: 25.8%–34.7%) had an HC less than or equal to the 10th percentile (129 of 429 neonates), and 8.2% (95% confidence interval: 5.8%–11.2%) had an HC less than or equal to the third percentile (35 of 429 neonates). Multivariate analysis was used and determined that only chronic opioid use during gestation resulting in a neonate who was NAS treated was a significant risk factor for the observed smaller HC.

CONCLUSIONS:

Chronic opioid use during pregnancy sufficient to cause NAS was associated with smaller HCs at birth. Most mothers were on opioid agonist medication-assisted treatment, which is currently the recommended treatment option during pregnancy.

Postdischarge Mortality Prediction in Sub-Saharan Africa

BACKGROUND:

Although the burden of postdischarge mortality (PDM) in low-income settings appears to be significant, no clear recommendations have been proposed in relation to follow-up care after hospitalization. We aimed to determine the burden of pediatric PDM and develop predictive models to identify children who are at risk for dying after discharge.

METHODS:

Deaths after hospital discharge among children aged <15 years in the last 17 years were reviewed in an area under demographic and morbidity surveillance in Southern Mozambique. We determined PDM over time (up to 90 days) and derived predictive models of PDM using easily collected variables on admission.

RESULTS:

Overall PDM was high (3.6%), with half of the deaths occurring in the first 30 days. One primary predictive model for all ages included young age, moderate or severe malnutrition, a history of diarrhea, clinical pneumonia symptoms, prostration, bacteremia, having a positive HIV status, the rainy season, and transfer or absconding, with an area under the curve of 0.79 (0.75–0.82) at day 90 after discharge. Alternative models for all ages including simplified clinical predictors had a similar performance. A model specific to infants <3 months old was used to identify as predictors being a neonate, having a low weight-for-age z score, having breathing difficulties, having hypothermia or fever, having oral candidiasis, and having a history of absconding or transfer to another hospital, with an area under the curve of 0.76 (0.72–0.91) at day 90 of follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS:

Death after discharge is an important although poorly recognized contributor to child mortality. A simple predictive algorithm based on easily recognizable variables could readily be used to identify most infants and children who are at a high risk of dying after discharge.

Insurance Mandates and Out-of-Pocket Spending for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

BACKGROUND:

The health care costs associated with treating autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children can be substantial. State-level mandates that require insurers to cover ASD-specific services may lessen the financial burden families face by shifting health care spending to insurers.

METHODS:

We estimated the effects of ASD mandates on out-of-pocket spending, insurer spending, and the share of total spending paid out of pocket for ASD-specific services. We used administrative claims data from 2008 to 2012 from 3 commercial insurers, and took a difference-in-differences approach in which children who were subject to mandates were compared with children who were not. Because mandates have heterogeneous effects based on the extent of children’s service use, we performed subsample analyses by calculating quintiles based on average monthly total spending on ASD-specific services. The sample included 106 977 children with ASD across 50 states.

RESULTS:

Mandates increased out-of-pocket spending but decreased the share of spending paid out of pocket for ASD-specific services on average. The effects were driven largely by children in the highest-spending quintile, who experienced an average increase of $35 per month in out-of-pocket spending (P < .001) and a 4 percentage point decline in the share of spending paid out of pocket (P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

ASD mandates shifted health care spending for ASD-specific services from families to insurers. However, families in the highest-spending quintile still spent an average of >$200 per month out of pocket on these services. To help ease their financial burden, policies in which children with higher service use are targeted may be warranted.

Neonatal Intubation Practice and Outcomes: An International Registry Study

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Neonatal tracheal intubation is a critical but potentially dangerous procedure. We sought to characterize intubation practice and outcomes in the NICU and delivery room (DR) settings and to identify potentially modifiable factors to improve neonatal intubation safety.

METHODS:

We developed the National Emergency Airway Registry for Neonates and collected standardized data for patients, providers, practices, and outcomes of neonatal intubation. Safety outcomes included adverse tracheal intubation–associated events (TIAEs) and severe oxygen desaturation (≥20% decline in oxygen saturation). We examined the relationship between intubation characteristics and adverse events with univariable tests and multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS:

We captured 2009 NICU intubations and 598 DR intubations from 10 centers. Pediatric residents attempted 15% of NICU and 2% of DR intubations. In the NICU, the first attempt success rate was 49%, adverse TIAE rate was 18%, and severe desaturation rate was 48%. In the DR, 46% of intubations were successful on the first attempt, with 17% TIAE rate and 31% severe desaturation rate. Site-specific TIAE rates ranged from 9% to 50% (P < .001), and severe desaturation rates ranged from 29% to 69% (P = .001). Practices independently associated with reduced TIAEs in the NICU included video laryngoscope (adjusted odds ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.28–0.73) and paralytic premedication (adjusted odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.25–0.57).

CONCLUSIONS:

We implemented a novel multisite neonatal intubation registry and identified potentially modifiable factors associated with adverse events. Our results will inform future interventional studies to improve neonatal intubation safety.

Mowat-Wilson Syndrome Presenting With Purpura Fulminans

Purpura fulminans is a rapidly progressive syndrome of intravascular thrombosis and hemorrhagic infarction of the skin. The most common infectious etiology is Neisseria meningitidis sepsis, and less commonly it has been documented as a complication of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae. In children who are otherwise healthy, splenic dysfunction is a significant predisposing factor for invasive pneumococcal infection. We present the case of a 10-month-old girl with a history of developmental delay, who developed an overwhelming infection complicated by purpura fulminans and was found to have previously undiagnosed Mowat-Wilson syndrome with anatomic asplenia. We propose screening patients with clinical features suggestive of Mowat-Wilson syndrome for asplenia to evaluate the need for additional preventive care.

Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior From 6 to 11 Years

OBJECTIVES:

Physical activity (PA) is presumed to decline during childhood and adolescence, but only few long-term studies about PA development during this period of life exist. We assessed PA and sedentary behavior (SB) over a 5-year period to gain a better understanding of the extent of change in activity and potential influencing factors.

METHODS:

PA and SB of 600 children from the Childhood Obesity Project were objectively measured with the SenseWear Armband 2 at the ages of 6, 8, and 11 years, resulting in 1254 observations. Longitudinal changes of total PA, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity (LPA), and SB were modeled with mixed-effects models.

RESULTS:

Total PA revealed a significant quadratic decline with age (P < .001), resulting in a change of total PA by –75.3 minutes per day from 6 to 11 years. LPA linearly declined (P < .001) by 44.6 minutes per day, MVPA quadratically declined (P < .001) by an overall 30.7 minutes, whereas SB increased significantly (+107 minutes; P = .001). Boys showed a steeper decline in LPA (P = .003) and MVPA (P < .001) than did girls. Higher fat mass index and BMI z scores were associated with lower levels of total PA and MVPA and higher levels of SB (all P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

We showed that PA decreased, and SB increased in earlier years than previously thought. MVPA remained relatively stable until 8 years, but revealed a drop-off at 11 years, identifying this period as a crucial time for intervention.

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

Pediatricians are often the first to identify developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and direct subsequent appropriate treatment. The general treatment principle of DDH is to obtain and maintain a concentric reduction of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Achieving this goal can range from less-invasive bracing treatments to more-invasive surgical treatment depending on the age and complexity of the dysplasia. In this review, we summarize the current trends and treatment principles in the diagnosis and treatment of DDH.

Efficacy and Safety of EMLA Cream for Pain Control Due to Venipuncture in Infants: A Meta-analysis

CONTEXT:

The eutectic mixture of lidocaine (EMLA) cream has been used to reduce the pain during venipuncture in infants.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the efficacy and safety of EMLA in infants <3 months of age requiring venipuncture in comparison with nonpharmacological interventions in terms of pain reduction, change in physiologic variables, and methemoglobinemia.

DATA SOURCES:

Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, and gray literature were searched from inception to August 2017, without language restrictions.

STUDY SELECTION:

We selected randomized controlled trials in which researchers compared EMLA with nonpharmacological interventions.

DATA EXTRACTION:

Two reviewers independently performed abstract screening and full-text review, and extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias.

RESULTS:

Ten randomized controlled trials (907 infants) were included. EMLA revealed little or no effect in reduction of pain (standardized mean difference: 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI]: –0.17 to 0.45; 6 trials, n = 742; moderate-quality evidence) when EMLA was compared with sucrose, breastfeeding, or placebo. In comparison with placebo, EMLA revealed a small-to-moderate effect on increasing methemoglobin levels (mean difference: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.66; 2 trials, n = 134; low-quality evidence). There was an increased risk of blanching of the skin in the EMLA group (relative risk: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.58 to 4.38; 2 trials, n = 123; I2 = 84%, very low–quality evidence).

LIMITATIONS:

Our results may not be applicable to older infants.

CONCLUSIONS:

EMLA reveals minimal benefits in terms of reduction of pain due to venipuncture procedure in comparison with placebo and no benefit in comparison with sucrose and/or breastfeeding. Moreover, it produced an elevation in methemoglobin levels and skin blanching.

Nurse Home Visiting for Families Experiencing Adversity: A Randomized Trial

OBJECTIVES:

Nurse home visiting (NHV) may redress inequities in children’s health and development evident by school entry. We tested the effectiveness of an Australian NHV program (right@home), offered to pregnant women experiencing adversity, hypothesizing improvements in (1) parent care, (2) responsivity, and (3) the home learning environment at child age 2 years.

METHODS:

A randomized controlled trial of NHV delivered via universal child and family health services was conducted. Pregnant women experiencing adversity (≥2 of 10 risk factors) with sufficient English proficiency were recruited from antenatal clinics at 10 hospitals across 2 states. The intervention comprised 25 nurse visits to child age 2 years. Researchers blinded to randomization assessed 13 primary outcomes, including Home Observation of the Environment (HOME) Inventory (6 subscales) and 25 secondary outcomes.

REULTS

Of 1427 eligible women, 722 (50.6%) were randomly assigned; 306 of 363 (84%) women in the intervention and 290 of 359 (81%) women in the control group provided 2-year data. Compared with women in the control group, those in the intervention reported more regular child bedtimes (adjusted odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25 to 2.48), increased safety (adjusted mean difference [AMD] 0.22; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.37), increased warm parenting (AMD 0.09; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16), less hostile parenting (reverse scored; AMD 0.29; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.41), increased HOME parental involvement (AMD 0.26; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.38), and increased HOME variety in experience (AMD 0.20; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.34).

CONCLUSIONS:

The right@home program improved parenting and home environment determinants of children’s health and development. With replicability possible at scale, it could be integrated into Australian child and family health services or trialed in countries with similar child health services.

Trends in Outpatient Antibiotic Use in 3 Health Plans

OBJECTIVES:

Previous analyses of data from 3 large health plans suggested that the substantial downward trend in antibiotic use among children appeared to have attenuated by 2010. Now, data through 2014 from these same plans allow us to assess whether antibiotic use has declined further or remained stable.

METHODS:

Population-based antibiotic-dispensing rates were calculated from the same health plans for each study year between 2000 and 2014. For each health plan and age group, we fit Poisson regression models allowing 2 inflection points. We calculated the change in dispensing rates (and 95% confidence intervals) in the periods before the first inflection point, between the first and second inflection points, and after the second inflection point. We also examined whether the relative contribution to overall dispensing rates of common diagnoses for which antibiotics were prescribed changed over the study period.

RESULTS:

We observed dramatic decreases in antibiotic dispensing over the 14 study years. Despite previous evidence of a plateau in rates, there were substantial additional decreases between 2010 and 2014. Whereas antibiotic use rates decreased overall, the fraction of prescribing associated with individual diagnoses was relatively stable. Prescribing for diagnoses for which antibiotics are clearly not indicated appears to have decreased.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data revealed another period of marked decline from 2010 to 2014 after a relative plateau for several years for most age groups. Efforts to decrease unnecessary prescribing continue to have an impact on antibiotic use in ambulatory practice.

Early Caffeine Administration and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Preterm Infants

BACKGROUND:

Although caffeine use for apnea of prematurity is well studied, the long-term safety and benefit of routine early caffeine administration has not been explored. Our objective was to determine the association between early (within 2 days of birth) versus late caffeine exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants.

METHODS:

Infants of <29 weeks’ gestation born between April 2009 and September 2011 and admitted to Canadian Neonatal Network units and then assessed at Canadian Neonatal Follow-up Network centers were studied. Neonates who received caffeine were divided into early- (received within 2 days of birth) and late-caffeine (received after 2 days of birth) groups. The primary outcome was significant neurodevelopmental impairment, defined as cerebral palsy, or a Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition composite score of <70 on any component, hearing aid or cochlear implant, or bilateral visual impairment at 18 to 24 months’ corrected age.

RESULTS:

Of 2108 neonates who were eligible, 1545 were in the early-caffeine group and 563 were in the late-caffeine group. Rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, and severe neurologic injury were lower in the early-caffeine group than in the late-caffeine group. Significant neurodevelopmental impairment (adjusted odds ratio 0.68 [95% confidence interval 0.50–0.94]) and odds of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition cognitive scores of <85 (adjusted odds ratio 0.67 [95% confidence interval 0.47–0.95]) were lower in the early-caffeine group than in the late-caffeine group. Propensity score–based matched-pair analyses revealed lower odds of cerebral palsy and hearing impairment only.

CONCLUSIONS:

Early caffeine therapy is associated with better neurodevelopmental outcomes compared with late caffeine therapy in preterm infants born at <29 weeks’ gestation.

An Educational Intervention to Improve HPV Vaccination: A Cluster Randomized Trial

BACKGROUND:

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can lead to serious health issues and remains the most common sexually transmitted infection. Despite availability of effective vaccines, HPV vaccination rates are suboptimal.

METHODS:

In a cluster randomized trial, an intervention used to target parents of adolescents (11–17 years) eligible for a dose of HPV vaccine, was tested in pediatric clinics part of an urban health system. Parents watched a digital video outlining the risks and benefits of vaccine using a tablet in the examination room. The primary outcome was change in HPV vaccine status 2 weeks after the clinic visit. An intention-to-treat analysis for the primary outcome used generalized estimating equations to accommodate the potential cluster effect of clinics.

RESULTS:

A total of 1596 eligible adolescents were observed during the 7-month trial. One-third of adolescents visited an intervention clinic. Adolescents who attended an intervention clinic were more likely to be younger (11–12 years) than those who attended a control clinic (72.4% vs 49.8%; P < .001). No differences in race or sex were observed. The proportion of adolescents with an observed change in vaccine status was higher for those attending an intervention clinic (64.8%) versus control clinic (50.1%; odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.47–2.25; P < .001). Adolescents whose parents watched the video had a 3-times greater odds of receiving a dose of the HPV vaccine (78.0%; odds ratio, 3.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.47–6.42; P = .003).

CONCLUSIONS:

Educational interventions delivered within a clinical setting hold promise to improve vaccination behaviors.

When a Child Needs a Transplant but Lacks Familial Social Support

We present the case of a 19-month-old boy with complex congenital heart disease. His single father is skeptical of traditional medicine and does not offer the social support needed to make heart transplantation successful for his son. After the father demonstrates commitment to transplant success and provides enhanced social support, doctors place the child on a Berlin Heart (a biventricular assist device) as a bridge to transplantation and list him for transplant. When the child is matched to a donor heart, the father refuses transplantation, despite that it is the child’s only chance for survival. His doctors report the case to child protective services, but they decline to take protective custody. The father then changes his mind and asks that the child be put back on the waiting list for transplant. By this time, the social supports the father implemented are no longer in place. This case raises a number of issues. First, should courts order heart transplantation when doctors believe that it is in the child’s best interest and parents do not consent? Second, once parents refuse a transplant, can they change their minds? Third, if there are uncertainties regarding whether the child has the social support to make transplantation successful, should the child be relisted? Finally, should a child who is not currently a transplant candidate but who may become one in the future be supported with ventricular assist devices?

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