PEDIATRICS recent issues

Depression and Suicide-Risk Screening Results in Pediatric Primary Care

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

Depression is common, and suicide rates are increasing. Adolescent depression screening might miss those with unidentified suicide risk. Our primary objective in this study was to compare the magnitude of positive screen results across different approaches.

METHODS

From June 2019 to October 2020, 803 mostly Medicaid-enrolled adolescents aged ≥12 years with no recent history of depression or self-harm were screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified for Adolescents (PHQ-9A) and the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) across 12 primary care practices. Two PHQ-9A screening strategies were evaluated: screening for any type of depression or other mental illness (positive on any item) or screening for major depressive disorder (MDD) (total score ≥10).

RESULTS

Overall, 56.4% of patients screened positive for any type of depression, 24.7% screened positive for MDD, and 21.1% screened positive for suicide risk. Regardless of PHQ-9A screening strategy, the ASQ identified additional subjects (eg, 2.2% additional cases compared with screening for any type of depression or other mental illness and 8.3% additional cases compared with screening positive for MDD). Of those with ≥6 month follow-up, 22.9% screened positive for any type of depression (n = 205), 35.6% screened positive for MDD (n = 90), and 42.7% with a positive ASQ result (n = 75) had a depression or self-harm diagnosis or an antidepressant prescription.

CONCLUSIONS

Suicide risk screening identifies cases not identified by depression screening. In this study, we underscore opportunities and challenges in primary care related to the high prevalence of depression and suicide risk. Research is needed regarding optimal screening strategies and to help clinicians manage the expected number of screening-identified adolescents.

Devices for Administering Ventilation at Birth: A Systematic Review

CONTEXT

Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) is the most important intervention during neonatal resuscitation.

OBJECTIVE

To compare T-piece resuscitators (TPRs), self-inflating bags (SIBs), and flow-inflating bags for newborns receiving PPV during delivery room resuscitation.

DATA SOURCES

Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and trial registries (inception to December 2020).

STUDY SELECTION

Randomized, quasi-randomized, interrupted time series, controlled before-and-after, and cohort studies were included without language restrictions.

DATA EXTRACTION

Two researchers independently extracted data, assessed the risk of bias, and evaluated the certainty of evidence. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. When appropriate, data were pooled by using fixed-effect models.

RESULTS

Meta-analysis of 4 randomized controlled trials (1247 patients) revealed no significant difference between TPR and SIB for in-hospital mortality (risk ratio 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40 to 1.34). Resuscitation with a TPR resulted in a shorter duration of PPV (mean difference –19.8 seconds; 95% CI –27.7 to –12.0 seconds) and lower risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (risk ratio 0.64; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.95; number needed to treat 32). No differences in clinically relevant outcomes were found in 2 randomized controlled trials used to compare SIBs with and without positive end-expiratory pressure valves. No studies used to evaluate flow-inflating bags were found.

LIMITATIONS

Certainty of evidence was very low or low for most outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

Resuscitation with a TPR compared with an SIB reduces the duration of PPV and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. A strong recommendation cannot be made because of the low certainty of evidence. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of positive end-expiratory pressure valves when used with SIBs.

SARS-CoV-2 Infection Dynamics in Children and Household Contacts in a Slum in Rio de Janeiro

OBJECTIVES

To investigate the dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a vulnerable population of children and their household contacts.

METHODS

SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) immunoglobulin G serology tests were performed in children and their household contacts after enrollment during primary health care clinic visits. Participants were followed prospectively with subsequent specimens collected through household visits in Manguinhos, an impoverished urban slum (a favela) in Rio de Janeiro at 1, 2, and 4 weeks and quarterly post study enrollment.

RESULTS

Six hundred sixty-seven participants from 259 households were enrolled from May to September 2020. This included 323 children (0–13 years), 54 adolescents (14–19 years), and 290 adults. Forty-five (13.9%) children had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction. SARS-CoV-2 infection was most frequent in children aged <1 year (25%) and children aged 11 to 13 years (21%). No child had severe COVID-19 symptoms. Asymptomatic infection was more prevalent in children aged <14 years than in those aged ≥14 years (74.3% and 51.1%, respectively). All children (n = 45) diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection had an adult contact with evidence of recent infection.

CONCLUSIONS

In our setting, children do not seem to be the source of SARS-CoV-2 infection and most frequently acquire the virus from adults. Our findings suggest that, in settings such as ours, schools and child care potentially may be reopened safely if adequate COVID-19 mitigation measures are in place and staff are appropriately immunized.

Neonatal Mastitis and Concurrent Serious Bacterial Infection

OBJECTIVES

Describe the clinical presentation, prevalence, and outcomes of concurrent serious bacterial infection (SBI) among infants with mastitis.

METHODS

Within the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee, 28 sites reviewed records of infants aged ≤90 days with mastitis who were seen in the emergency department between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2017. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were summarized.

RESULTS

Among 657 infants (median age 21 days), 641 (98%) were well appearing, 138 (21%) had history of fever at home or in the emergency department, and 63 (10%) had reported fussiness or poor feeding. Blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were collected in 581 (88%), 274 (42%), and 216 (33%) infants, respectively. Pathogens grew in 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–1.2) of blood, 1.1% (95% CI 0.2–3.2) of urine, and 0.4% (95% CI 0.01–2.5) of cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Cultures from the site of infection were obtained in 335 (51%) infants, with 77% (95% CI 72–81) growing a pathogen, most commonly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (54%), followed by methicillin-susceptible S aureus (29%), and unspecified S aureus (8%). A total of 591 (90%) infants were admitted to the hospital, with 22 (3.7%) admitted to an ICU. Overall, 10 (1.5% [95% CI 0.7–2.8]) had sepsis or shock, and 2 (0.3% [95% CI 0.04–1.1]) had severe cellulitis or necrotizing soft tissue infection. None received vasopressors or endotracheal intubation. There were no deaths.

CONCLUSIONS

In this multicenter cohort, mild localized disease was typical of neonatal mastitis. SBI and adverse outcomes were rare. Evaluation for SBI is likely unnecessary in most afebrile, well-appearing infants with mastitis.

Promoting Healthy Sexuality for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities

This clinical report updates a 2006 report from the American Academy of Pediatrics titled "Sexuality of Children and Adolescents With Developmental Disabilities." The development of a healthy sexuality best occurs through appropriate education, absence of coercion and violence, and developmental acquisition of skills to navigate feelings, desires, relationships, and social pressures. Pediatric health care providers are important resources for anticipatory guidance and education for all children and youth as they understand their changing bodies, feelings, and behaviors. Yet, youth with disabilities and their families report inadequate education and guidance from pediatricians regarding sexual health development. In the decade since the original clinical report was published, there have been many advancements in the understanding and care of children and youth with disabilities, in part because of an increased prevalence and breadth of autism spectrum disorder as well as an increased longevity of individuals with medically complex and severely disabling conditions. During this same time frame, sexual education in US public schools has diminished, and there is emerging evidence that the attitudes and beliefs of all youth (with and without disability) about sex and sexuality are being formed through media rather than formal education or parent and/or health care provider sources. This report aims to provide the pediatric health care provider with resources and tools for clinical practice to address the sexual development of children and youth with disabilities. The report emphasizes strategies to promote competence in achieving a healthy sexuality regardless of physical, cognitive, or socioemotional limitations.

The Potential for Improving the Population Health Effectiveness of Screening: A Simulation Study

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

Screening interventions in pediatric primary care often have limited effects on patients’ health. Using simulation, we examined what conditions must hold for screening to improve population health outcomes, using screening for depression in adolescence as an example.

METHODS

Through simulation, we varied parameters describing the working recognition and treatment of depression in primary care. The outcome measure was the effect of universal screening on adolescent population mental health, expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible effect. Through simulations, we randomly selected parameter values from the ranges of possible values identified from studies of care delivery in real-world pediatric settings.

RESULTS

We examined the comparative effectiveness of universal screening over assessment as usual in 10 000 simulations. Screening achieved a median of 4.2% of the possible improvement in population mental health (average: 4.8%). Screening had more impact on population health with a higher sensitivity of the screen, lower false-positive rate, higher percentage screened, and higher probability of treatment, given the recognition of depression. However, even at the best levels of each of these parameters, screening usually achieved <10% of the possible effect.

CONCLUSIONS

The many points at which the mental health care delivery process breaks down limit the population health effects of universal screening in primary care. Screening should be evaluated in the context of a realistic model of health care system functioning. We need to identify health care system structures and processes that strengthen the population effectiveness of screening or consider alternate solutions outside of primary care.

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