PEDIATRICS recent issues

A Seat at the Table: Centering the Voices of Gun Violence Survivors

The following is the winning submission from the Fourth Annual Section on Pediatric Trainees Essay Competition. This year’s competition was informed by the 2019–2020 Section on Pediatric Trainees Advocacy Campaign: Protect Kids – Trainees for Firearm Safety. We asked writers to share their experiences as pediatric trainee advocates for gun violence prevention and were impressed by the breadth of entries we received from around the country. The winning essay by Dr Kamaal Jones was focused on amplifying the voice of gun violence survivors. Dr Jones eloquently implores us to offer gun violence survivors "A Seat at the Table," so that our policies may be shaped by survivors’ lived experiences and calls for change. This inspiring piece reminds us that listening to the community is a critical first step in our advocacy efforts and that doing so can empower us to make the greatest impact. Names and minor identifying details have been altered to protect the privacy of group members.

Well-being of Parents and Children During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A National Survey

BACKGROUND:

As the coronavirus disease pandemic spread across the United States and protective measures to mitigate its impact were enacted, parents and children experienced widespread disruptions in daily life. Our objective with this national survey was to determine how the pandemic and mitigation efforts affected the physical and emotional well-being of parents and children in the United States through early June 2020.

METHODS:

In June 2020, we conducted a national survey of parents with children age <18 to measure changes in health status, insurance status, food security, use of public food assistance resources, child care, and use of health care services since the pandemic began.

RESULTS:

Since March 2020, 27% of parents reported worsening mental health for themselves, and 14% reported worsening behavioral health for their children. The proportion of families with moderate or severe food insecurity increased from 6% before March 2020 to 8% after, employer-sponsored insurance coverage of children decreased from 63% to 60%, and 24% of parents reported a loss of regular child care. Worsening mental health for parents occurred alongside worsening behavioral health for children in nearly 1 in 10 families, among whom 48% reported loss of regular child care, 16% reported change in insurance status, and 11% reported worsening food security.

CONCLUSIONS:

The coronavirus disease pandemic has had a substantial tandem impact on parents and children in the United States. As policy makers consider additional measures to mitigate the health and economic effects of the pandemic, they should consider the unique needs of families with children.

Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2020-2021

This statement updates the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics for the routine use of influenza vaccine and antiviral medications in the prevention and treatment of influenza in children during the 2020–2021 season.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends routine influenza immunization of all children without medical contraindications, starting at 6 months of age. Influenza vaccination is an important intervention to protect vulnerable populations and reduce the burden of respiratory illnesses during the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Any licensed, recommended, age-appropriate vaccine available can be administered, without preference for one product or formulation over another.

Antiviral treatment of influenza with any licensed, recommended, age-appropriate influenza antiviral medication is recommended for children with suspected or confirmed influenza who are hospitalized, have severe or progressive disease, or have underlying conditions that increase their risk of complications of influenza. Antiviral treatment may be considered for any previously healthy, symptomatic outpatient not at high risk for influenza complications in whom an influenza diagnosis is confirmed or suspected, if treatment can be initiated within 48 hours of illness onset, and for children whose siblings or household contacts either are younger than 6 months or have a high-risk condition that predisposes them to complications of influenza.

Orchestrated Testing of Formula Type to Reduce Length of Stay in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

BACKGROUND:

Despite the standardization of care, formula feeding varied across sites of the Ohio Perinatal Quality Collaborative (OPQC). We used orchestrated testing (OT) to learn from this variation and improve nonpharmacologic care of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) requiring pharmacologic treatment in Ohio.

METHODS:

To test the impact of formula on length of stay (LOS), treatment failure, and weight loss among infants hospitalized with NAS, we compared caloric content (high versus standard) and lactose content (low versus standard) using a 22 factorial design. During October 2015 to June 2016, OPQC sites joined 1 of 4 OT groups. We used response plots to examine the effect of each factor and control charts to track formula use and LOS. We used the OT results to revise the nonpharmacologic bundle and implemented it during 2017.

RESULTS:

Forty-seven sites caring for 546 NAS infants self-selected into the 4 OT groups. Response plots revealed the benefit of high-calorie formula (HCF) on weight loss, treatment failure, and LOS. The nonpharmacologic treatment bundle was updated to recommend HCF when breastfeeding was not possible. During implementation, HCF use increased, and LOS decreased from 17.1 to 16.4 days across the OPQC.

CONCLUSIONS:

OT revealed that HCF was associated with shorter LOS in OPQC sites. Implementation of a revised nonpharmacologic care bundle was followed by additional LOS improvement in Ohio. Despite some challenges in the implementation of OT, our findings support its usefulness for learning in improvement networks.

Pages