PEDIATRICS recent issues

Foreign-Body Ingestions of Young Children Treated in US Emergency Departments: 1995-2015

OBJECTIVES:

To describe the epidemiology of foreign-body ingestions (FBIs) of children <6 years of age who were treated in US emergency departments from 1995 to 2015.

METHODS:

We performed a retrospective analysis using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for children <6 years of age who were treated because of concern of FBI from 1995 to 2015. National estimates were generated from the 29 893 actual cases reviewed.

RESULTS:

On the basis of those cases, 759 074 children <6 years of age were estimated to have been evaluated for FBIs in emergency departments over the study period. The annual rate of FBI per 10 000 children increased by 91.5% from 9.5 in 1995 to 18 in 2015 (R2 = 0.90; P < .001). Overall, boys more frequently ingested foreign bodies (52.9%), as did children 1 year of age (21.3%). Most children were able to be discharged after their suspected ingestion (89.7%). Among the types of objects ingested, coins were the most frequent (61.7%). Toys (10.3%), jewelry (7.0%), and batteries (6.8%) followed thereafter. The rates of ingestions of those products also increased significantly over the 21-year period. Across all age groups, the most frequently ingested coin was a penny (65.9%). Button batteries were the most common batteries ingested (85.9%).

CONCLUSIONS:

FBIs remain common in children <6 years of age, and their rate of ingestions has increased over time. The frequency of ingestions noted in this study underscores the need for more research to determine how best to prevent these injuries.

A Novel Icterometer for Hyperbilirubinemia Screening in Low-Resource Settings

BACKGROUND:

Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (>20 mg/dL) affects ~1 million infants annually. Improved jaundice screening in low-income countries is needed to prevent bilirubin encephalopathy and mortality.

METHODS:

The Bili-ruler is an icterometer for the assessment of neonatal jaundice that was designed by using advanced digital color processing. A total of 790 newborns were enrolled in a validation study at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (Boston) and Sylhet Osmani Medical College Hospital (Sylhet, Bangladesh). Independent Bili-ruler measurements were made and compared with reference standard transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) and total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentrations.

RESULTS:

Bili-ruler scores on the nose were correlated with TcB and TSB levels (r = 0.76 and 0.78, respectively). The Bili-ruler distinguished different clinical thresholds of hyperbilirubinemia, defined by TcB, with high sensitivity and specificity (score ≥3.5: 90.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 84.8%–95.4%] and 85.9% [95% CI: 83.2%–88.6%], respectively, for TcB ≥13 mg/dL). The Bili-ruler also performed reasonably well compared to TSB (score ≥3.5: sensitivity 84.5% [95% CI: 79.1%–90.3%] and specificity 83.2% [95% CI: 76.1%–90.3%] for TSB ≥11 mg/dL). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for identifying TcB ≥11, ≥13, and ≥15 were 0.92, 0.93, and 0.94, respectively, and 0.90, 0.87, and 0.86 for identifying TSB ≥11, ≥13, and ≥15. Interrater reliability was high; 97% of scores by independent readers fell within 1 score of one another (N = 88).

CONCLUSIONS:

The Bili-ruler is a low-cost, noninvasive tool with high diagnostic accuracy for neonatal jaundice screening. This device may be used to improve referrals from community or peripheral health centers to higher-level facilities with capacity for bilirubin testing and/or phototherapy.

Postvaccination Febrile Seizure Severity and Outcome

BACKGROUND:

Febrile seizures (FSs) are a common pediatric condition caused by a sudden rise in temperature, affecting 3% to 5% of children aged ≤6 years. Although vaccination can cause FSs, little is known on whether FSs occurring in the time soon after vaccination (vaccine-proximate febrile seizures [VP-FSs] differ clinically from non–vaccine-proximate febrile seizures [NVP-FSs]). We compared the clinical profile and outcomes of VP-FS to NVP-FS.

METHODS:

Prospective cohort study of children aged ≤6 years presenting with their first FS at 1 of 5 Australian pediatric hospitals between May 2013 and June 2014. Clinical features, management, and outcomes were compared between VP-FS and NVP-FS.

RESULTS:

Of 1022 first FS cases (median age 19.8 months; interquartile range 13.6–27.6), 67 (6%) were VP-FSs. When comparing VP-FS to NVP-FS, there was no increased risk of prolonged (>1 day) hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 1.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.84–3.10), ICU admission (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.10–5.48), seizure duration >15 minutes (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.73–2.98), repeat FS within 24 hours (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.34–1.89), or requirement for antiepileptic treatment on discharge (OR 1.81; 95% CI 0.41–8.02). VP-FS patients with a laboratory-confirmed infection (12%) were more likely to have a prolonged admission compared with those without.

CONCLUSIONS:

VP-FS accounted for a small proportion of all FS hospital presentations. There was no difference in outcomes of VP-FS compared with NVP-FS. This is reassuring data for clinicians and parents of children who experience FS after vaccination and can help guide decisions on revaccination.

Beyond an Obvious Cause of Cholestasis in a Toddler: Compound Heterozygosity for ABCB11 Mutations

A 27-month-old girl presented with a short history of jaundice initially attributed to drug-induced liver injury. During the preceding 20 days, she had received a 10-day course of cefprozil and 2 doses of a homeopathic preparation of cantharidin for cystitis. Severe conjugated hyperbilirubinemia was present with normal -glutamyl transpeptidase activity. Liver biopsy revealed marked canalicular and hepatocellular cholestasis, with moderate hepatocellular disarray, as well as evidence of chronicity, including moderate portal-tract and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that bile salt export pump expression was preserved, whereas canalicular -glutamyl transpeptidase expression was largely absent. An inherited cholestatic disorder was suspected. The entire coding region of ABCB11, encoding bile salt export pump, was analyzed. The patient was found to be a compound heterozygote for the missense mutation c.3148C>T (p.Arg1050Cys) associated with benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 in the homozygous state and for the nonsense mutation c.3904G>T (p.Glu1302Ter) associated with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2. Despite initial improvement with ursodeoxycholic acid, over the course of 5 years the patient developed cirrhosis that required liver transplant. Our report emphasizes the need for molecular studies even in patients with putatively "explained" cholestasis to reveal the entire spectrum of inherited cholestatic disorders.

Improving Care for Sickle Cell Pain Crisis Using a Multidisciplinary Approach

OBJECTIVES:

Frequent hospitalizations for sickle cell disease (SCD) vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) are associated with school absenteeism, emotional distress, and financial hardships. Our goal was to decrease hospital days for VOC admissions by 40% over a 5-year period.

METHODS:

From October 2011 to September 2016, a multidisciplinary quality-improvement project was conducted with a plan-do-study-act methodology. Five key drivers were identified and 9 interventions implemented. Interventions included individualized home pain plans, emergency department and inpatient order sets, an inpatient daily schedule, psychoeducation, and a biofeedback program. High users (≥4 admissions per year) received an individualized SCD plan and assigned mental health provider. We expanded the high-use group to include at-risk patients (3 admissions per year). Data were analyzed for patients ages 0 to 21 years admitted for VOC. Hospital days were the primary measure; the 30-day readmission rate was the balancing measure.

RESULTS:

A total of 216 SCD pediatric patients were managed in 2011 with a 14% increase over 5 years. A total of 122 patients were admitted for VOC. Hospital days decreased by 61% from 59.6 days per month in the preintervention period to 23.2 days per month in the postintervention period (P < .0001). Length of stay decreased from 4.78 (SD = 4.08) to 3.84 days (SD = 2.10; P = .02). Among high users, hospital days decreased from 35.4 to 15.5 days per month. The thirty-day readmission rate decreased from 33.9% to 19.4%. Overall savings in direct hospital costs per year were $555 120.

CONCLUSIONS:

A dedicated team effort with simple interventions can have a significant impact on the well-being of a patient population and hospital costs.

Disparities in Inpatient Intensity of End-of-Life Care for Complex Chronic Conditions

BACKGROUND:

Children with complex chronic conditions (CCCs) require a disproportionate share of health care services and have high mortality rates, but little is known about their end-of-life care.

METHODS:

We performed a retrospective population-based analysis using a California State administrative database of children aged 1 to 21 years with a CCC who died of disease-related causes between 2000 and 2013. Rates of and sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with previously defined inpatient end-of-life intensity indicators were determined. The intensity indicators included: (1) hospital death, (2) receipt of a medically intense intervention within 30 days of death (ICU admission, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, hemodialysis, and/or intubation), and (3) having ≥2 intensity markers (including hospital death).

RESULTS:

There were 8654 children in the study population with a mean death age of 11.8 years (SD 6.8). The 3 most common CCC categories were neuromuscular (47%), malignancy (43%), and cardiovascular (42%). Sixty-six percent of the children died in the hospital, 36% had a medically intense intervention in the last 30 days of life, and 35% had ≥2 intensity markers. Living in a low-income neighborhood was associated with increased odds of hospital death, a medically intense intervention, and ≥2 intensity markers. Hispanic and "other" race and/or ethnicity were associated with hospital death and ≥2 intensity markers. Age 15 to 21 years was associated with hospital death, a medically intense intervention, and ≥2 intensity markers.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sociodemographic disparities in the intensity of end-of-life care for children with CCCs raise concerns about whether all children are receiving high-quality and goal-concordant end-of-life care.

Parents Perspectives Regarding Age Restrictions for Tackling in Youth Football

BACKGROUND:

In ice hockey and soccer, age restrictions exist for body checking and heading because of injury risk. There are currently no age restrictions for tackling in youth football.

METHODS:

We surveyed a nationally representative sample of US parents regarding their support for age restrictions on tackling in football with responses of "yes," "no," and "maybe." We then generated regression models, attempting to predict support for age restrictions in tackling using demographic variables, parent perceptions of the risk of concussion in youth football, and the intensity of football support. All analyses were stratified by sex given effect modification.

RESULTS:

There were 1025 parents who completed the survey (52% response rate; 56% female sex). The majority (61%) supported age restrictions for tackling, and an additional 24% indicated they maybe would support age restrictions. For female respondents, a greater perceived risk of tackle football (odds ratio [OR] 3.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–13.83) and greater educational attainment (OR 3.97; 95% CI 1.61–9.80) were associated with greater odds of supporting age restrictions for tackling. For male respondents, having a child 6 to 12 years old was associated with greater odds of maybe supporting age restrictions for tackling (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.19–4.62).

CONCLUSIONS:

A majority of US parents across sexes would support age restrictions for tackling in football. This information should inform discussions when guidelines about tackling in youth football are revisited.

Antibiotic Prescribing During Pediatric Direct-to-Consumer Telemedicine Visits

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Use of commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) telemedicine outside of the pediatric medical home is increasing among children, and acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the most commonly diagnosed condition at DTC telemedicine visits. Our objective was to compare the quality of antibiotic prescribing for ARIs among children across 3 settings: DTC telemedicine, urgent care, and the primary care provider (PCP) office.

METHODS:

In a retrospective cohort study using 2015–2016 claims data from a large national commercial health plan, we identified ARI visits by children (0–17 years old), excluding visits with comorbidities that could affect antibiotic decisions. Visits were matched on age, sex, chronic medical complexity, state, rurality, health plan type, and ARI diagnosis category. Within the matched sample, we compared the percentage of ARI visits with any antibiotic prescribing and the percentage of ARI visits with guideline-concordant antibiotic management.

RESULTS:

There were 4604 DTC telemedicine, 38 408 urgent care, and 485 201 PCP visits for ARIs in the matched sample. Antibiotic prescribing was higher for DTC telemedicine visits than for other settings (52% of DTC telemedicine visits versus 42% urgent care and 31% PCP visits; P < .001 for both comparisons). Guideline-concordant antibiotic management was lower at DTC telemedicine visits than at other settings (59% of DTC telemedicine visits versus 67% urgent care and 78% PCP visits; P < .001 for both comparisons).

CONCLUSIONS:

At DTC telemedicine visits, children with ARIs were more likely to receive antibiotics and less likely to receive guideline-concordant antibiotic management compared to children at PCP visits and urgent care visits.

Missed Opportunities for Rotavirus Vaccination

BACKGROUND:

Rotavirus remains an important cause of gastroenteritis and has been associated with the hospitalization of 34 to 53 per 10 000 children <5 years of age in the United States annually from 2008 to 2012. Rotavirus vaccines are underused compared with other routine vaccines. We describe rotavirus vaccine coverage and missed opportunities for rotavirus vaccination.

METHODS:

The National Immunization Survey is a random-digit–dial, population-based survey including US children 19 to 35 months of age. Children fully vaccinated for rotavirus were those who received 3 doses of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, 2 doses of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine, or ≥3 doses of either vaccine type. Doses of the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine received from 6 weeks through 8 months and 0 days of age when the rotavirus vaccine was not received were considered missed opportunities for rotavirus vaccination according to Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines, and doses of the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine or measles-mumps-rubella vaccine from 6 weeks through 24 months and 0 days of age were considered missed opportunities according to World Health Organization recommendations.

RESULTS:

Of the 14 571 children included in the 2014 National Immunization Survey, 71% were fully vaccinated for rotavirus. Lower socioeconomic status increased the likelihood of being unvaccinated for rotavirus. Among the 14% of children who received no doses of the rotavirus vaccine, 72% had ≥1 ACIP-defined missed opportunities, and 83% had ≥1 World Health Organization–defined missed opportunities. Higher socioeconomic status increased the likelihood of having missed opportunities. Complete rotavirus vaccine coverage could be improved to 81% if all missed opportunities within the ACIP-recommended schedule were addressed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Addressing missed opportunities for rotavirus vaccination is essential to achieving the 80% rotavirus vaccine coverage target outlined by Healthy People 2020.

Platelet Transfusion for PDA Closure in Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Thrombocytopenia is associated with late closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). There are few studies evaluating platelet transfusions to treat PDA. We compared liberal platelet-transfusion criteria (to maintain a platelet count >100 000 per µL) versus standard criteria achieve earlier PDA closure among thrombocytopenic preterm neonates (<35 weeks’ gestation) with hemodynamically significant PDA (hs-PDA) presenting within the first 2 weeks of life.

METHODS:

Thrombocytopenic (<100 000 per µL) preterm neonates with hs-PDA were enrolled and randomly allocated to the liberal and standard transfusion groups: 22 in each arm. They underwent echocardiography daily until closure of PDA, completion of 120 hours follow-up, or death. All subjects received standard cotreatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Primary outcome of time to PDA closure was compared by survival analysis. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression was performed with randomization group, baseline platelet count, gestational age, and age at enrollment as predictor variables.

RESULTS:

Median time to PDA closure was 72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 55.9–88.1) versus 72 (95% CI 45.5–98.4) hours in the liberal versus restrictive transfusion groups, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio 0.88 [95% CI 0.4–1.9]; P = .697). Despite adjusting for potential confounders, there was no significant difference in time to PDA closure. In the liberal transfusion group, 41% of infants had any grade of intraventricular hemorrhage compared with 4.5% in the restrictive group (P = .009).

CONCLUSIONS:

Attempting to maintain a platelet count >100 000 per µL by liberally transfusing platelets in preterm thrombocytopenic neonates with hs-PDA does not hasten PDA closure.

Gestational Age, Birth Weight, and Outcomes Six Years After the Norwood Procedure

BACKGROUND:

Preterm delivery and low birth weight (LBW) are generally associated with worse outcomes in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), but an individual preterm or small neonate may do well. We sought to explore the interactions between gestational age, birth weight, and birth weight for gestational age with intermediate outcomes in HLHS.

METHODS:

We analyzed survival, growth, neurodevelopment, length of stay, and complications to age 6 years in subjects with HLHS from the Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial. Univariate and multivariable survival and regression analyses examined the effects and interactions of LBW (<2500 g), weight for gestational age, and gestational age category.

RESULTS:

Early-term delivery (n = 234) was more common than term (n = 219) delivery. Small for gestational age (SGA) was present in 41% of subjects, but only 14% had LBW. Preterm, compared with term, delivery was associated with an increased risk of death or transplant at age 6 years (all: hazard ratio = 2.58, confidence interval = 1.43–4.67; Norwood survivors: hazard ratio = 1.96, confidence interval = 1.10–3.49) independent of LBW and weight for gestational age. Preterm delivery, early-term delivery, LBW, and SGA were each associated with lower weight at 6 years. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were worst in the LBW cohort.

CONCLUSIONS:

Preterm delivery in HLHS was associated with worse survival, even beyond Norwood hospitalization. LBW, SGA, and early-term delivery were associated with worse growth but not survival. LBW was associated with worse neurodevelopment, despite similar length of stay and complications. These data suggest that preterm birth and LBW (although often concomitant) are not equivalent, impacting clinical outcomes through mechanisms independent of perioperative course complexity.

Blood Lead Levels Among Resettled Refugee Children in Select US States, 2010-2014

BACKGROUND:

Elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs; ≥5 µg/dL) are more prevalent among refugee children resettled in the United States than the general US population and contribute to permanent health and neurodevelopmental problems. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends screening of refugee children aged 6 months to 16 years on arrival in the United States and retesting those aged 6 months to 6 years between 3- and 6-months postarrival.

METHODS:

We analyzed EBLL prevalence among refugee children aged 6 months to 16 years who received a domestic refugee medical examination between January 1, 2010 and September 30, 2014. We assessed EBLL prevalence by predeparture examination country and, among children rescreened 3 to 6 months after initial testing, we assessed EBLL changes during follow-up screening.

RESULTS:

Twelve sites provided data on 27 284 children representing nearly 25% of refugee children resettling during the time period of this analysis. The EBLL prevalence during initial testing was 19.3%. EBLL was associated with younger age, male sex, and overseas examination country. Among 1121 children from 5 sites with available follow-up test results, EBLL prevalence was 22.7%; higher follow-up BLLs were associated with younger age and predeparture examination country.

CONCLUSIONS:

EBLL decreased over the time period of our analysis in this population of refugee children. Refugee children may be exposed to lead before and after resettlement to the United States. Efforts to identify incoming refugee populations at high risk for EBLL can inform prevention efforts both domestically and overseas.

Psychotropic Medication Use in Parents of Children Diagnosed With Cancer

BACKGROUND:

Objective measures on parental distress after a child’s cancer diagnosis are sparse. We examined the risk for first prescription of psychotropic medicine among parents of children with cancer compared with parents of children who were cancer free. In addition, we examined if sociodemographic and clinical characteristics are associated with risk of first prescription of psychotropic medication in parents of children with cancer.

METHODS:

We followed all parents of children with cancer (N = 6744) from the Danish Cancer Registry (1998–2014) using parents of matched children who were cancer free (N = 65 747) as a comparison. To identify vulnerable subgroups among parents of children with cancer, we followed all parents of children with cancer from the Childhood Cancer Registry (2003–2015; N = 3290 parents). In Cox proportional hazard models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for a first prescription of psychotropic medication according to cancer status of the child and sociodemographic and clinical risk factors.

RESULTS:

Parents of children with cancer were at increased risk for a first prescription of psychotropic medication compared with parents of children who were cancer free up to 2 years after the diagnosis, the risk being highest in the first year (HR, 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.66–2.01]). Parents of children with cancer, especially parents who lost their child, had an increased risk for a first prescription of hypnotics (HR, 6.91; 95% CI, 3.50–13.66) and anxiolytics (HR, 4.55, 95% CI, 1.57–13.17) in the first year after diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Efforts should be made to ensure that medical teams are adequately educated to address stress responses in the parents.

Socioeconomic Disadvantage in Infancy and Academic and Self-Regulation Outcomes

OBJECTIVES:

A comprehensive understanding of how timing of exposure to disadvantage affects long-term developmental risk is needed for greater precision in child health policy. We investigated whether socioeconomic disadvantage in infancy (age 0–1 years) directly affects academic and self-regulation problems in late childhood (age 10–12 years), independent of disadvantage at school entry (age 4–6 years).

METHODS:

Analyses were replicated in 2 population-based cohorts: the Australian Temperament Project (ATP; N = 2443) and the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC; N = 5107). Generalized linear models were used to estimate the crude and adjusted effects. Marginal structural models were used to estimate the controlled direct effect of socioeconomic disadvantage in infancy on academic and self-regulation outcomes in late childhood, independent of disadvantage at school entry.

RESULTS:

In both cohorts, socioeconomic disadvantage in infancy and at school entry was associated with poorer academic and self-regulation outcomes. Socioeconomic disadvantage in infancy had a direct effect on academic outcomes not mediated by disadvantage at school entry (ATP: risk ratio [RR] = 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–1.86; LSAC: RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.52–2.31). Little evidence was found for a direct effect of disadvantage in infancy on self-regulation (ATP: RR = 1.22; 95% CI: 0.89–1.65; LSAC: RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.95–1.49).

CONCLUSIONS:

Socioeconomic disadvantage in infancy had a direct effect on academic but not self-regulation outcomes in late childhood. More precise public policy responses are needed that consider both the timing of children’s exposure to disadvantage and the specific developmental domain impacted.

Maternal Immigrant Status and Readiness to Transition to Home From the NICU

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Evaluate effects of immigrant status on perceptions of discharge readiness in mothers of preterm infants <37 weeks’ gestation and identify the impact of primary language and years in the United States.

METHODS:

Immigrant (n = 176) and native (n = 556) mothers of preterm infants cared for in the NICU for >5 days between 2012 and 2015 completed the Fragile Infant Parental Readiness Evaluation (FIPRE), a NICU-discharge readiness questionnaire. Group comparisons were made on the basis of immigrant status. Regression models examined effects of immigrant status, primary language, and years in the United States on discharge readiness.

RESULTS:

Immigrant mothers were more likely to be older, gravida >1, multiracial or people of color, and non-English speaking; have less than a high school education; and receive Medicaid but less likely to have child protective services involvement, substance abuse, and mental health disorder (MHD). Whereas rates of non-English primary language, low education, and Medicaid decreased, rates of MHDs increased with years in the United States. At NICU discharge, immigrant mothers had poorer perceptions of infant well-being, maternal well-being, maternal comfort, and time impact. In adjusted analyses, immigrant status, non-English primary language, and MHD predicted unfavorable scores. Among immigrant mothers, increased years in the United States and MHD predicted unfavorable scores.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although findings suggest acculturation with increased years in the United States, immigrant mothers perceived less discharge readiness in multiple domains, highlighting the need for culturally competent care and discharge services specifically tailored to help this vulnerable population.

Cigarette Smoking Disparities Between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth

BACKGROUND:

Using a population-based sample of youth, we examined rates of cigarette use and trends in cigarette use disparities between heterosexual youth and 3 subgroups of sexual minority youth (SMY) (ie, lesbian or gay, bisexual, and unsure) from 2005 to 2015.

METHODS:

Data are from 6 cohorts of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national, biennial, school-based survey of ninth- to 12th-grade students in the United States (n = 404 583). Sex-stratified analyses conducted in 2017 examined trends in 2 cigarette-related behaviors: lifetime cigarette use and heavy cigarette use (20+ days in the past 30).

RESULTS:

Disparities in lifetime cigarette use between lesbian and heterosexual girls were statistically smaller in 2015 relative to 2005 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12–0.75; P = .011). Sexual orientation disparities in heavy use were narrower for bisexual boys in 2015 compared with 2005 (aOR 0.39; 95% CI 0.17–0.90; P = .028). Girls and boys unsure of their sexual identity had wider disparities in heavy use in 2015 (aOR 3.85; 95% CI 1.39–11.10; P = .009) relative to 2005 (aOR 2.44; 95% CI 1.22–5.00; P = .012).

CONCLUSIONS:

SMY remain at greater risk for cigarette-related behaviors despite greater acceptance of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people in the United States. Focused policies and programs aimed at reducing rates of SMY cigarette use are warranted, particularly for youth questioning their sexual identity.

Treating Hypertension in Children With n-of-1 Trials

OBJECTIVES:

Clinicians prescribe antihypertensive medication to children with primary hypertension, but without data to define a particular choice as first-line therapy. A one-size-fits-all approach may not be appropriate for these patients. Our aim was to develop a personalized approach to hypertension treatment, using repeated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in n-of-1 trials (single-patient randomized crossover trials).

METHODS:

Children undergoing hypertension management at a single pediatric referral center were offered participation in an n-of-1 trial with repeated ABPM to compare 3 commonly used medications. The medication producing the greatest blood pressure reduction, and without unacceptable side effects, was selected as the preferred therapy for the individual.

RESULTS:

Forty-two children agreed to participate; 7 were normotensive without medication; and 3 failed to complete one treatment cycle. Of the remaining 32 patients, lisinopril was preferred for 16, amlodipine for 8, hydrochlorothiazide for 4, and 4 had uncontrolled blood pressure on maximum doses of monotherapy. In conservative Bayesian analyses, the proportion of patients who preferred lisinopril was 49% (95% credible interval [CrI]: 32% to 69%), 24% (95% CrI: 12% to 41%) preferred amlodipine, and 12% (95% CrI: 4% to 26%) preferred hydrochlorothiazide. The preferred therapy for the majority (67%) of African American participants was lisinopril. Unacceptable side effects were reported in 24% of assessments for hydrochlorothiazide, 16% for lisinopril, and 13% for amlodipine.

CONCLUSIONS:

No single medication was preferred for more than half of hypertensive children. n of-1 trials with repeated ABPM may promote better informed and individualized decisions in pediatric hypertension management.

Differences in Parent-Toddler Interactions With Electronic Versus Print Books

OBJECTIVES:

Previous research has documented less dialogic interaction between parents and preschoolers during electronic-book reading versus print. Parent-toddler interactions around commercially available tablet-based books have not been described. We examined parent-toddler verbal and nonverbal interactions when reading electronic versus print books.

METHODS:

We conducted a videotaped, laboratory-based, counterbalanced study of 37 parent-toddler dyads reading on 3 book formats (enhanced electronic [sound effects and/or animation], basic electronic, and print). We coded verbalizations in 10-second intervals for parents (dialogic, nondialogic, text reading, format related, negative format-related directives, and off task) and children (book related, negative, and off task). Shared positive affect and collaborative book reading were coded on a scale of 1 to 5 (5 = high). Proc Genmod and Proc Mixed analyzed within-subjects variance by book format.

RESULTS:

Parents showed significantly more dialogic (print 11.9; enhanced 6.2 [P < .001]; basic 8.3 [P < .001]), text-reading (print 14.3; enhanced 10.6 [P = .003]; basic 14.4 [P < .001]), off-task (print 2.3; enhanced 1.3 [P = .007]), and total (29.5; enhanced 28.1 [P = .003]; basic 29.3 [P = .005]) verbalizations with print books and fewer format-related verbalizations (print 1.9; enhanced 10.0 [P < .001]; basic 8.3 [P < .001]). Toddlers showed more book-related verbalizations (print 15.0; enhanced 11.5 [P < .001]; basic 12.5 [P = .005]), total verbalizations (print 18.8; enhanced 13.8 [P < .001]; basic 15.3 [P < .001]), and higher collaboration scores (print 3.1; enhanced 2.7 [P = .004]; basic 2.8 [P = .02]) with print-book reading.

CONCLUSIONS:

Parents and toddlers verbalized less with electronic books, and collaboration was lower. Future studies should examine specific aspects of tablet-book design that support parent-child interaction. Pediatricians may wish to continue promoting shared reading of print books, particularly for toddlers and younger children.

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