Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection remains the most common cause of neonatal early-onset sepsis and a significant cause of late-onset sepsis among young infants. Administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis is the only currently available effective strategy for the prevention of perinatal GBS early-onset disease, and there is no effective approach for the prevention of late-onset disease. The American Academy of Pediatrics joins with the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to reaffirm the use of universal antenatal microbiologic-based testing for the detection of maternal GBS colonization to facilitate appropriate administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. The purpose of this clinical report is to provide neonatal clinicians with updated information regarding the epidemiology of GBS disease as well current recommendations for the evaluation of newborn infants at risk for GBS disease and for treatment of those with confirmed GBS infection. This clinical report is endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), July 2019, and should be construed as ACOG clinical guidance.
To determine if children who sustain a fracture in childhood had an increased rate of fracture later in childhood or early adulthood. The a priori null hypothesis was that children who sustained a fracture would not have an increased rate of future fractures compared with children who did not sustain a fracture when controlling for important covariates.METHODS:
This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using health care databases in Ontario. Approximately 2.5 million healthy children aged 0 to 15 years living in Ontario, Canada between April 1, 2003, and March 31, 2004, were included and followed for 7 years. The exposure was occurrence of any fracture during a 1-year baseline period. The main outcome was any fractures during a 7-year follow-up period.RESULTS:
A total of 43 154 children suffered a fracture during the baseline year (17.5 fractures per 1000 child years). Children with a baseline fracture had a 60% higher rate of fracture (incidence rate ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 1.46–1.75; P < .0001) during the follow-up period after adjustment for sex, rurality, history of previous fracture, and the occurrence of other injuries (head and soft-tissue).CONCLUSIONS:
The occurrence of a fracture during childhood was associated with an increased rate of future fractures compared with children who did not suffer a fracture. Attempting to improve childhood bone health by targeting children who present to a fracture clinic with multiple fracture risk factors may be a useful strategy for secondary prevention of fractures and may have beneficial effects on long-term bone health.
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are associated with high mortality and long-term morbidity. However, incidence is low and acyclovir, the treatment of choice, carries risk of toxicity. We aimed to increase the percentage of patients 0 to 60 days of age who are tested and treated for HSV in accordance with local guideline recommendations from 40% to 80%.METHODS:
This quality improvement project took place at 1 freestanding children’s hospital. Multiple plan-do-study-act cycles were focused on interventions aimed at key drivers including provider buy-in, guideline availability, and accurate identification of high-risk patients. A run chart was used to track the effect of interventions on the percentage managed per guideline recommendations over time by using established rules for determining special cause. Pre- and postimplementation acyclovir use was compared by using a 2 test. In HSV-positive cases, delayed acyclovir initiation, defined as >1 day from presentation, was tracked as a balancing measure.RESULTS:
The median percentage of patients managed according to guideline recommendations increased from 40% to 80% within 8 months. Acyclovir use decreased from 26% to 7.9% (P < .001) in non–high-risk patients but did not change significantly in high-risk patients (73%–83%; P = .15). There were no cases of delayed acyclovir initiation in HSV-positive cases.CONCLUSIONS:
Point-of-care availability of an evidence-based guideline and interventions targeted at provider engagement improved adherence to a new guideline for neonatal HSV management and decreased acyclovir use in non–high-risk infants. Further study is necessary to confirm the safety of these recommendations in other settings.
Children with special health care needs (SHCNs) have significant medical and educational expenses affecting household finances. Housing instability can be detrimental to family well-being. Our objective was to evaluate housing instability in households of children with and without SHCNs.METHODS:
Cross-sectional surveys (2013–2017) in English and Spanish of caregivers with children <4 years old were conducted at 5 hospitals. The children with SHCN screener and caregiver report of child Supplemental Security Income (SSI) receipt were used to categorize children into the following groups: (1) no SHCNs, (2) SHCNs and no SSI, or (3) SHCNs and receiving SSI. Housing instability was determined by positive endorsement of ≥1 adverse circumstance: behind on rent or mortgage, or moving twice or more in the past year, or homelessness in the child’s lifetime. Analyses used multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for demographics and housing subsidies.RESULTS:
Of 14 188 children, 80% had no SHCNs, 16% had SHCNs and no SSI, and 4% had SHCNs and received SSI. Compared with the no-SHCNs group, the SHCNs–no-SSI group but not the SHCN–receiving-SSI group experienced significantly greater adjusted odds of being behind on rent or mortgage (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.28 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–1.44]; P < .001), multiple moves (aOR 1.29 [95% CI 1.05–1.59]; P = .01), and homelessness (aOR 1.44 [95% CI 1.20–1.72]; P < .001).CONCLUSIONS:
Families of children with SHCNs are at risk for housing instability. Child SSI receipt decreased the risk of housing instability among families of children with SHCNs. Protecting families of young children with SHCNs from housing instability is an important investment.
To assess the impact of a parent educational intervention about influenza disease on child vaccine receipt.METHODS:
A convenience sample of parents of children ≥6 months old with a visit at 2 New York City pediatric clinics between August 2016 and March 2017 were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive either usual care, an educational handout about influenza disease that was based on local data, or an educational handout about influenza disease that was based on national data. Parents received the handout in the waiting room before their visit. Primary outcomes were child influenza vaccine receipt on the day of the clinic visit and by the end of the season. A multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between intervention and vaccination, with adjustment for variables that were significantly different between arms.RESULTS:
Parents who received an intervention (versus usual care) had greater odds of child influenza vaccine receipt by the end of the season (74.9% vs 65.4%; adjusted odds ratio 1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.06–2.67) but not on the day of the clinic visit. Parents who received the national data handout (versus usual care) had greater odds of child influenza vaccine receipt on the day of the clinic visit (59.0% vs 52.6%; adjusted odds ratio 1.79; 95% confidence interval: 1.04–3.08) but not by the end of the season.CONCLUSIONS:
Providing an educational intervention in the waiting room before a pediatric provider visit may help increase child influenza vaccine receipt.
Adolescents represent the largest age group that presents to emergency departments (ED) for synthetic cannabinoid (SC) toxicity; however, the neurotoxic effects of acute SC exposures in this group are understudied. Our aim was to characterize the neuropsychiatric presentation of adolescents with SC-related exposure in the ED compared with those with traditional cannabis exposure.METHODS:
A multicenter registry of clinical information prospectively collected by medical toxicologists (Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry) was reviewed for adolescents presenting to the ED after SC or cannabis exposure from 2010 through 2018. Associations were measured between drug exposures and neuropsychiatric symptoms and/or signs. Exposures were classified into 4 groups: SC-only exposure, SC-polydrug exposures, cannabis-only exposure, and cannabis-polydrug exposures.RESULTS:
Adolescents presenting to the ED with SC-only exposure (n = 107) had higher odds of coma and/or central nervous system depression (odds ratio [OR] 3.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51–7.75) and seizures (OR 3.89; 95% CI 1.39–10.94) than those with cannabis-only exposure (n = 86). SC-only drug exposure was associated with lower odds of agitation than cannabis-only exposure (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.10–0.34). In contrast, the group with SC-polydrug exposures (n = 38) had higher odds of agitation (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.56–7.44) and seizures (OR 4.8; 95% CI 1.80–12.74) than the cannabis-polydrug exposures group (n = 117).CONCLUSIONS:
In this multisite cohort of US adolescents assessed in the ED, SC exposure was associated with higher odds of neuropsychiatric morbidity than cannabis exposure providing a distinct neurospychiatric profile of acute SC toxicity in adolescents.
Asthma is a highly prevalent childhood chronic disease, with particularly high rates among poor and minority youth. Psychosocial factors have been linked to asthma severity but remain poorly understood. This study examined (1) relationships between parent and child depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, family functioning, and child asthma control in a sample of urban minority youth with uncontrolled asthma and (2) family functioning as a pathway linking parent depression and asthma outcomes.METHODS:
Data were drawn from the baseline cohort of a randomized trial testing community interventions for children aged 5 to 16 with uncontrolled asthma (N = 223; mean age = 9.37, SD = 3.02; 85.2% Hispanic). Asthma control was defined by using the Asthma Control Test and Childhood Asthma Control Test, activity limitation, and previous-12-month asthma severity. Psychosocial measures included parent and child depression and PTSD symptoms, family chaos, and parent social support.RESULTS:
Parent and child depression symptoms, but not PTSD, were associated with worse asthma control (β = –.20 [SE = 0.06] and β = –.12 [SE = –.03]; P < .001). Family chaos corresponded to worse asthma control, even when controlling for parent and child depression (β = –.33; [SE = 0.15]; P < .05), and was a mediator of the parent depression-asthma path. Emotional triggers of asthma also mediated the parent depression-asthma relationship.CONCLUSIONS:
Findings highlight family chaos as a mechanism underlying the relationship between parent depression and child asthma control. Addressing parent and child depression, family routines, and predictability may optimize asthma outcomes.
Our objective for this study was to explore the experiences of faculty in academic pediatrics who are underrepresented minorities (URMs) at 2 urban medical centers, in particular, the experiences that influenced their pursuit of academic pediatrics.METHODS:
Three focus groups were conducted in 2016 with URM faculty from Howard University College of Medicine and Children’s National Health System to explore how they were influenced to pursue academic pediatrics. Ten 1-on-1 interviews were also conducted in 2017 with URM faculty at Children’s National Health System. Focus groups were coded and analyzed by the research team using standard qualitative methods. The 1-on-1 interviews were coded and analyzed by the primary investigator and verified by members of the research team.RESULTS:
A total of 25 faculty participated in the study (15 in the focus groups and 10 in individual interviews). Eighteen of the faculty were women and 7 were men. Findings revealed that mentorship, family, and community influenced participants’ career choices. Barriers for URMs in academic pediatrics included (1) lack of other URMs in leadership positions, (2) few URMs practicing academic pediatrics, and (3) the impact of racism and gender and implicit bias in the medical field.CONCLUSIONS:
Mentorship and family are major influences on why URMs become academic pediatricians. Lack of URMs in leadership positions, racism, gender bias, and implicit bias are barriers for URMs in academic pediatrics. More research should be conducted on ways to enhance the experience of URMs and to reduce barriers in academia.
Asthma is widely prevalent among US children, particularly in homeless children, who often lack proper medication storage or the ability to avoid environmental triggers. In this study, we assess asthma-attributed health care use among homeless youth. We hypothesize that asthma hospitalization rates, symptom severity, and admission through the emergency department (ED) will be higher among homeless youth compared with nonhomeless youth.METHODS:
This secondary data analysis identified homeless and nonhomeless pediatric patients (<18 years old) with a primary diagnosis of asthma from New York statewide inpatient databases between 2009 and 2014. Hospitalization rate, readmission rate, admission through the ED, ventilation use, ICU admittance, hospitalization cost, and length of stay were measured.RESULTS:
We identified 71 837 asthma hospitalizations, yielding 73.8 and 2.3 hospitalizations per 1000 homeless and nonhomeless children, respectively. Hospitalization rates varied by nonhomeless income quartile, with low-income children experiencing higher rates (5.4) of hospitalization. Readmissions accounted for 16.0% of homeless and 12.5% of nonhomeless hospitalizations. Compared with nonhomeless patients, homeless patients were more likely to be admitted from the ED (odds ratio 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.82–2.12; P < .01), and among patients >5 years old, homeless patients were more likely to receive ventilation (odds ratio 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.01–2.09; P = .04). No significant differences were observed in ICU admittance, cost, or length of stay.CONCLUSIONS:
Homeless youth experience an asthma hospitalization rate 31 times higher than nonhomeless youth, with higher rates of readmission. Homeless youth live under uniquely challenging circumstances. Tailored asthma control strategies and educational intervention could greatly reduce hospitalizations.
Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by multiple hamartomatous polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Juvenile polyposis of infancy is a generalized severe form of juvenile polyposis syndrome associated with a poor prognosis. A 47-month-old female infant presented initially with gastrointestinal bleeding and protein-losing enteropathy at 4 months of age. At the age of 12 months, the condition worsened, requiring albumin infusions every 24 to 48 hours and red blood cell transfusions every 15 days. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, and small-bowel enteroscopy revealed diffuse polyposis that was treated with multiple endoscopic polypectomies. Despite subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis, protein-losing enteropathy and bleeding persisted, requiring continued blood transfusions and albumin infusions. A chromosomal microarray revealed a single allele deletion in chromosome 10q23, involving both the PTEN and BMPR1A genes. Loss of PTEN function is associated with an increased activation of the protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway involved in cell proliferation. Treatment with sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, was initiated with the aim of inhibiting polyp growth. Soon after initiation of treatment with sirolimus, blood and albumin infusions were no longer needed and resulted in improved patient growth and quality of life. This case represents the first detailed report of successful drug therapy for life-threatening juvenile polyposis of infancy.
To determine the associations of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and protective familial and community factors with school performance and attitudes in children ages 6 to 17.METHODS:
A cross-sectional analysis of the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health was performed. All data were demographically weighted and included 65 680 children ages 6 to 17. The survey identified up to 9 ACEs in each child. ACE scores were categorized as 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 ACEs. Children’s protective factors (PFs) included the following: safe neighborhood, supportive neighbors, 4 neighborhood amenities, well-kept neighborhood, no household smoking, ≥5 family meals per week, and a parent who can talk to the child. PFs were categorized into ≤3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 PFs. School outcomes included the following: child repeated ≥1 grade; never, rarely, or sometimes completes homework; and never, rarely, or sometimes cares about school. 2 tests and logistic regressions assessed the relationships between ACEs and school outcomes, PFs and school outcomes, and both ACEs and PFs and school outcomes, adjusting for sex, age, race, ethnicity, and maternal education.RESULTS:
Each negative school outcome is associated with higher ACE scores and lower PF scores. After adding PFs into the same model as ACEs, the negative outcomes are reduced. The strongest PF is a parent who can talk to the child about things that matter and share ideas.CONCLUSIONS:
As children’s ACE scores increase, their school performance and attitudes decline. Conversely, as children’s PF scores increase, school outcomes improve. Pediatric providers should consider screening for both ACEs and PFs to identify risks and strengths to guide treatment, referral, and advocacy.
The primary care (PC) setting provides an opportunity to address adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. We examined moderators of effectiveness for a PC brief motivational intervention on adolescents’ alcohol and marijuana use and consequences 1 year later.METHODS:
We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 4 PC clinics from April 2013 to November 2015 and followed adolescents using Web-based surveys. We examined whether demographic factors and severity of use moderated 12-month outcomes. Adolescents aged 12 through 18 were screened by using the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Screening Guide. Those identified as at risk were randomly assigned to the intervention (CHAT) or to usual care (UC).RESULTS:
The sample (n = 294) was 58% female, 66% Hispanic, 17% African American, 12% white, and 5% multiethnic or of other race with an average age of 16 years. After controlling for baseline values of outcomes, teens in CHAT who reported more negative consequences from drinking or had an alcohol use disorder at baseline reported less alcohol use, heavy drinking, and consequences 1 year later compared with teens in UC. Similarly, teens in CHAT with more negative consequences from marijuana use at baseline reported less marijuana use 1 year later compared with teens in UC; however, teens in CHAT who reported fewer marijuana consequences at baseline reported greater marijuana use 1 year later compared with teens in UC.CONCLUSIONS:
A brief intervention can be efficacious over the long-term for adolescents who report problems from alcohol and marijuana use. Findings emphasize the importance of both screening and intervention in at-risk adolescents in PC.
In this study, we determined the prevalence of hearing loss in 157 children with proven congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection. We looked at possible risk determinants for developing hearing loss and proposed recommendations for screening and follow-up in the newborn.METHODS:
In a prospective 22-year study, 157 children with proven cCMV infection were evaluated for sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The development of SNHL was correlated with the type of maternal infection (primary versus nonprimary), the gestational age of maternal primary infection, imaging findings at birth, and the presence of symptomatic or asymptomatic infection in the newborn.RESULTS:
Of all children, 12.7% had SNHL, and 5.7% needed hearing amplification because of SNHL. Improvement, progression, and fluctuations of hearing thresholds were seen in 45%, 53.8%, and 5.7% of the children, respectively. Hearing loss was more common in the case of a symptomatic infection at birth (P = .017), after a maternal primary infection in the first trimester of pregnancy (P = .029), and in the presence of abnormalities on a neonatal brain ultrasound and/or MRI (P < .001).CONCLUSION
SNHL is a common sequela in children with cCMV infection. Risk factors for SNHL were primary maternal infections before the 14th week of pregnancy, the presence of a disseminated infection at birth, and imaging abnormalities in the newborn. These children may benefit from a more thorough investigation for SNHL than children who do not present with those risk factors.
Racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes of newborns requiring care in the NICU setting have been reported. The contribution of NICU care to disparities in outcomes is unclear.OBJECTIVE:
To conduct a systematic review of the literature documenting racial/ethnic disparities in quality of care for infants in the NICU setting.DATA SOURCES:
Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, and Web of Science were searched until March 6, 2018, by using search queries organized around the following key concepts: "neonatal intensive care units," "racial or ethnic disparities," and "quality of care."STUDY SELECTION:
English language articles up to March 6, 2018, that were focused on racial and/or ethnic differences in the quality of NICU care were selected.DATA EXTRACTION:
Two authors independently assessed eligibility, extracted data, and cross-checked results, with disagreements resolved by consensus. Information extracted focused on racial and/or ethnic disparities in quality of care and potential mechanism(s) for disparities.RESULTS:
Initial search yielded 566 records, 470 of which were unique citations. Title and abstract review resulted in 382 records. Appraisal of the full text of the remaining 88 records, along with the addition of 5 citations from expert consult or review of bibliographies, resulted in 41 articles being included.LIMITATIONS:
Quantitative meta-analysis was not possible because of study heterogeneity.CONCLUSIONS:
Overall, this systematic review revealed complex racial and/or ethnic disparities in structure, process, and outcome measures, most often disadvantaging infants of color, especially African American infants. There are some exceptions to this pattern and each area merits its own analysis and discussion.
To describe the landscape of Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program beneficiary incentive programs for child health and garner key stakeholder insights on incentive program rationale, child and family engagement, and program evaluation.METHODS:
We identified beneficiary health incentive programs from 2005 to 2018 through a search of peer-reviewed and publicly available documents and through semistructured interviews with 80 key stakeholders (Medicaid and managed-care leadership, program evaluators, patient advocates, etc). This study highlights insights from 23 of these stakeholders with expertise on programs targeting child health (<18 years old) to understand program rationale, beneficiary engagement, and program evaluation.RESULTS:
We identified 82 child health-targeted beneficiary incentive programs in Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program. Programs most commonly incentivized well-child checks (n = 77), preventive screenings (n = 30), and chronic disease management (n = 30). All programs included financial incentives (eg, gift cards, premium incentives); some also offered incentive material prizes (n = 12; eg, car seats). Loss-framed incentives were uncommon (n = 1; eg, lost benefits) and strongly discouraged by stakeholders. Stakeholders suggested family engagement strategies including multigenerational incentives or incentives addressing social determinants of health. Regarding evaluation, stakeholders suggested incentivizing evidence-based preventive services (eg, vaccinations) rather than well-child check attendance, and considering proximal measures of child well-being (eg, school functioning).CONCLUSIONS:
As the landscape of beneficiary incentive programs for child health evolves, policy makers have unique opportunities to leverage intergenerational and social approaches for family engagement and to more effectively increase and evaluate programs’ impact.
Firearms are the second leading cause of pediatric death in the United States. There is significant variation in firearm legislation at the state level. Recently, 3 state laws were associated with a reduction in overall deaths from firearms: universal background checks for firearm purchases, universal background checks for ammunition purchases, and identification requirement for firearms. We sought to determine if stricter firearm legislation at the state level is associated with lower pediatric firearm-related mortality.METHODS:
This was a cross-sectional study in which we used 2011–2015 Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System and Census data. We measured the association of the (1) strictness of firearm legislation (gun law score) and (2) presence of the 3 aforementioned gun laws with pediatric firearm-related mortality. We performed negative binomial regression accounting for differences in state-level characteristics (population-based race and ethnicity, education, income, and gun ownership) to derive mortality rate ratios associated with a 10-point change in each predictor and predicted mortality rates.RESULTS:
A total of 21 241 children died of firearm-related injuries during the 5-year period. States with stricter gun laws had lower rates of firearm-related pediatric mortality (adjusted incident rate ratio 0.96 [0.93–0.99]). States with laws requiring universal background checks for firearm purchase in effect for ≥5 years had lower pediatric firearm-related mortality rates (adjusted incident rate ratio 0.65 [0.46–0.90]).CONCLUSIONS:
In this 5-year analysis, states with stricter gun laws and laws requiring universal background checks for firearm purchase had lower firearm-related pediatric mortality rates. These findings support the need for further investigation to understand the impact of firearm legislation on pediatric mortality.
Adolescent depression and attempted and completed suicide are increasing in the United States. Because suicide is often impulsive, the means of self-harm are frequently items of convenience like medication. Authors of a recent study compared tricyclic antidepressant overdose to bupropion overdose. Fluoxetine and escitalopram are the only agents with Food and Drug Administration approval for pediatric depression, but off-label bupropion prescriptions are common. We sought to compare the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and bupropion in overdose.METHODS:
This was an analysis of the National Poison Data System from June 2013 through December 2017 for adolescent (ages 10–19) exposures to SSRIs or bupropion coded as "suspected suicide." Demographics, clinical effects, therapies, and medical outcome were analyzed.RESULTS:
There were 30 026 cases during the study period. Sertraline and fluoxetine accounted for nearly 60%, whereas bupropion was reported in 11.7%. Bupropion exposure was significantly associated with death (0.23% vs 0%; P < .001) or serious outcome (58.1% vs 19%; P < .001) as well as the 10 most common clinical effects, including seizures (27.0% vs 8.5%; P < .001) and hallucinations (28.6% vs 4.3%; P < .001). Bupropion exposure was significantly associated with the need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (0.51% vs 0.01%; P < .001), intubation (4.9% vs 0.3%; P < .001), vasopressors (1.1% vs 0.2%; P < .001), and benzodiazepines (34.2% vs 5.5%; P < .001). There was a significant increase in all exposures and in proportion of serious outcomes over time.CONCLUSIONS:
Adolescents who attempt self-harm are at higher risk for serious morbidity and poor outcomes with bupropion than with SSRIs. These risks, and the patient’s propensity for self-harm, should be evaluated when therapy with bupropion is considered.